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# Golic Vulcan (GV):Federation Standard English (FSE)
# Compiled from the website of the Vulcan Language Institute
# at <>.
# (/Travilal nash-veh s'vis-tum-vel t'Shi'Oren t'Gen-Lis Vuhlkansu
# na'<>./)
# The following inconsistencies have been found in the received data:
# (/Ki'tal-tor nash-veh ritsurkan'es svi'faik poprahik:/)
# 1. /pekhaya/ both for “stop” {n.} and related terms in
#    “Introduction to Vulcan Linguistics” (/fa-wak pehkau/
#    “will stop”), “Introduction to Golic Vulcan Grammar”
#    (/ulef-pekhaya/ “half-stop”, but /ek'pe*kh*aya/ “full-stop”),
#    and “Vulcan Language Lesson” 2, 3, 25, 27, and 29;
#    and also for “defecation” and related terms in “Vulcan Medical
#    Lexicon”.
#    Since it is both illogical that the same meaning should have
#    different word roots, and that the same word or word root
#    should have several meanings in Golic Vulcan[1] — for example,
#    how can /pekhaya/ mean “defecation” [“to-defecate-noun”] and
#    /pa'kizh-pekhaya/ “respiratory arrest” [“around-gasses-stop”]
#    at the same time?  How can there be /khaf-spol-pe*hk*aya/
#    “cardiac arrest” [“blood-pump-stop-noun”], but
#    /pa'kizh-pe*kh*aya/ “respiratory arrest” at the same time? —,
#    it is assumed that there were errors in transcription or
#    subspace transmission, and that the word root /pehk/ uniformly
#    refers to stopping (as in /pehkau/ “to stop”, /ek'pe_hk_aya/
#    “full-stop”, and /pa'kizh-pe_hk_aya/ “respiratory arrest”),
#    while the word root /pekh/ uniformly refers to concepts related
#    to defecation (as in /pe_kh_aya/ “defecation” and /pekh-razh/
#    “anus” [“feces-exit”]).
# [/1☐ – Dah-wak-isan t'/pekhaya/ na'>stop< |v-zh.| heh tersau-zhitlar
#    svi'°Ragtaya na'Gen-Lis-Tal Vuhlkansu° | /fa-wak pehkau/
#    >will stop< | - svi'°Ragtaya na'Zhit-Isan t'Gol-Vuhlkansu°
#    | /ulef-pekhaya/ >half-stop< - hi /ek'pe¦kh¦aya/ >full-stop< |
#    eh svi'°Tupa t'Gen-Lis Vuhlkansu° 2 - 3 - 25 - 27 heh 29 -
#    eh na'>defecation< heh tersau-zhitlar svi'°Vulcan Medical
#    Lexicon°.
#    Ri k'ozhika kupi on-ma ka-tvah natya-zhit-gir - heh ka-zhit il
#    ka-zhit-gir pohl-tvah svi'Gol-Vuhlkansu – na'li-fal -
#    kup-tvai /pekhaya/ >defecation< || >to-defecate-noun< || heh
#    /pa'kizh-pekhaya/ >respiratory arrest< || >around-gasses-stop< ||
#    na'ka-wak uf - kup-tra'nam-tor /khaf-spol-pe¦hk¦aya/
#    >cardiac arrest< || >blood-pump-stop-noun< || - hi
#    /pa'kizh-pe¦kh¦aya/ >respiratory arrest< na'ka-wak uf –
#    miyusau nash-veh tra'vesht lafoshlar svi'zhit-kitaun il
#    svi'ne-stukh-sasaya - eh wuh-shid-dzhinau zhit-gir /pehk/
#    na'pehkaya | vah /pehkau/ >to stop<, /ek'pe¦hk¦aya/
#    >full-stop< heh /pa'kizh-pe¦hk¦aya/ >respiratory arrest< | -
#    du'wuh-shid-dzhinau zhit-gir /pekh/ na'vellar t'pekhaya
#    | vah /pe¦kh¦aya/ >defecation< heh /pekh-razh/ >anus<
#    || >feces-exit< || |./]
# 2. As word for “symbol”, /sehtebihk/ in “Vulcan Language Lesson 6:
#    Punctuation”, /setebihk/ in “Example Phrases (VLI)”, and
#    /setebuhk/ in “Vulcan Rituals and Ceremonies”.  The first is
#    the form substantiated by the historical documents (“Star Trek:
#    The Motion Picture”) and therefore considered the correct one.
#    It is assumed that the i/u-difference occurred from the
#    neighboring positions of the keys for the letters “u” and “i”
#    on computer keyboards, and that /setebihk/ is misspelt.
# [/2☐ – Na'zhit t'>symbol< - /sehtebihk/ svi'°Gen-lis Vuhlkansu Tupa 6 -
#    Pehkamitaya° - /setebihk/ svi'°Li-Falik Zhit-Ballar° heh
#    /setebuhk/ svi'°Vulcan Rituals and Ceremonies°.  Ki'kla-hil-tor
#    nash-veh wuhr-shid svi'vesht-varik-faik | °Star Trek: The Motion
#    Picture° | - tal-tor vah yeht-veh.  Vesht tor-yehat i/u-natyan
#    s'be'shul t'ozh-svinlar t'zhit-sehtebihk >u< eh >i< fi'ozh-svin-math
#    t'tum-vel heh ri yeht-nazhitovaun /setebihk/./]
# 3. /tehtvun/ for “century” (100 years), but /leh-teh-tevun/ for
#    “millennium” (1000 years).  The word for “year” (time for one
#    rotation of Vulcan) is /tevun/. is not logical to shorten it
#    to /tvun/, an otherwise unknown word root, for “century
#    (100 year[s])”, and to use the combining form with “1000 year(s)”
#    but not “100 year[s]”.
#    Therefore, we assume this is a typo copied to all documents,
#    and that the word for “century” is /teh-tevun/.
# [3☐ – /tehtvun/ na'>century< (teh tevun) - hi /leh-teh-tevun/
#    na'>millennium< (leh-teh tevun).  Zhit na'wak t'wuh-dan
#    t'T'Khasi /tevun/.  Pen-tor na'/tvun/ ri-ozhik - vathru
#    zhit-git rifainuk - na'>century (100 year[s])< heh is-tor
#    terishanik shid na'>1000 year|s|< hi ri na'>100 year|s|<.
#    Miyusau nash-veh ki'va'asal lafosh k'ozh-svin-math
#    na'ek'varik-faik heh zhit na'>century< /teh-tevun/.]
# [1] /Na'natya-is - natya-shid./ “For different use, a different
#     form.”  —Tenek of Shi'Han (famous ancient Golic grammarian)
# Entries in this dictionary are of the following form:
#   original (optional part):translation (optional part) {word form} {context} [comment]
#     ex=…
## Any line that starts with “#” is a comment, and MAY
## be displayed by software as an introduction to the user
## (paragraph formatting SHOULD be used), unless it is followed by
## another “#” (like here) in which case it is documentation only
## for implementors and MUST NOT be displayed by software.
## (/Palikau zehl k'>#< comment heh gluvaun lerash-tukh /)
# Entries are indented to signify derivation, so that software
# can mark common word-roots.  The optional part of the original
# may contain affixes that can be omitted, or give an abbreviation.
## Entries starting with “ex=” signify examples and SHOULD
## be formatted accordingly.
# The translation may use /…/ (italics) to indicate that the original
# cannot be translated (e.g., proper names); however, it can indicate
# an alternative transcription that is more common in the target
# language.  The word-form is indicated with one of the abbreviations
# below in case of ambiguity.  The context part indicates in which
# contexts and meanings the original may or should be used. 
# Finally, the comment part describes the etymology of the original,
# indicates word relations (whereas same-language words, that SHOULD
# be possible to find in the dictionary, are indicated with /…/
# [italics]), provides background information or gives general usage
# advice.
## Translation software MUST consider the optional part of the
## original, both in combination and standalone; they SHOULD display
## the word-form, context, and comment parts of the translation with
## increasing verbosity, in that order.
# Golic Vulcan languages are affixing and compound languages;
# it is not logical to sort entries only alphabetically.  Instead,
# entries are sorted with the following precedence:
# 1. main context: /aushfa/ – /ulef-masu-aushfa/
#    (not: /masu/ – /ulef-masu-aushfa/)
# 2. root relation: /halovau/ – /hal-tor/ (not: /tor/ – /hal-tor/)
# 3. uses in combination: /le-suma/ – /dvunan-koval k'le-suma/
# 4. modifying suffixes: /pakh/ – /pakhaik/, /falek/ – /falek'es/
# 5. modifying prefixes: /ar'kadan/ – /fi'ar'kadan/
# 6. combining suffixes (based on main root): /ashiv/ – /ashiv-tor/,
#    /ayaun-sahriv/ < /ayaun-abu-yumaya/ (the main roots are
#    /sahriv/ and /yumaya/; not /sahriv/ and /abu/)
# 7. combining prefixes (based on main root): /dap/ – /reh-dap/
# Only when all applying superordered criteria are the same,
# entries are sorted by the FSE alphabet (not the MGV alphabet,
# in order to help learners.)  Note that weak verb forms, although
# combining with “-tor” are sorted before other modifying and
# combining forms because they have the stronger root. 
# Therefore, if you cannot find the translation for a compound
# word at entries beginning with the letter of the word, look
# into the entry for the main root.
# The following abbreviations have been used:
# adj.     – adjective, adjectival
# AGV      – Ancient Golic Vulcan (language)
# aero.    – aerospace
# agr.     – agriculture, agricultural; related to planting
# anat.    – anatomy, anatomical; related to body structure
# anc.     – ancient (word), from before Surak’s language reforms;
#            probably with irr. verb-forms
# anorg.   – anorganic; not related to life forms
# arch.    – archaeology, archaelogic
# auto.    – automotive
# biol.    – biology, biologic; related to life forms
# borr.    – borrowed word
# bot.     – botany, botanical; related to plant life
# card.    – cardinal form (of a number); for counting up and when
#            used like a noun
# CLGV     – Ceremonial/Lithurgic Golic Vulcan (language)
# colloq.  – colloquial; used in informal, non-scientific speech
# enum.    – enumerating form (of a number); for counting how many
#            items there are
# e.g.     – /exempli gratia/: Latin for "for example"
# etc.     – /et cetera/: Latin for "and so forth/on"
# ex.      – example
# fig.     – figuratively (vs. lit.); e.g., "field" can lit. mean
#            "place where crops grow", fig. "area of study", or
#            fig. a math. structure (like "Galois field") or
#            a physical structure or technology (like "warp field")
# gen.     – general, generally
# ger.     – gerund (form); verb form to describe what happens now 
# geo.     – related to geosciences
# geol.    – geology, geologic; related to stones and minerals
# gr.      – grammar, grammatical; grammatical term
# hon.     – honorific (form); preferred, polite form
# i.e.     – /id est/: Latin for "it is", meaning "that is"
# imp.     – imperative (form); used for commands and invocations
# irr.     – irregular (verb; vs. reg.)
# lit.     – literally (vs. fig.)
# math.    – mathematics, mathematically
# mech.    – mechanics, mechanically
# med.     – medicine, medical
# MGV      – Modern Golic Vulcan (language)
# mil.     – military 
# myth.    – mythology, mythologic
# n.       – noun; word for a thing or being
# naut.    – nautical; related to motion in seafaring tradition
# obs.     – obsolete (word); use the synonymous contemporary word
#            for everyday, non-ceremonial use instead (e.g., /wak/
#            instead of /farr/ for "time"; but: /kari farr/,
#            /pon farr/ etc.)
# ocean.   – oceanography, oceanographic
# ord.     – ordinal form (of a number): 1st, 2nd etc.
# paleo.   – paleontology, paleontological
# phys.    – physics, physical
# pl.      – plural (form)
# pol.     – politics, political
# rec.     – recreation, recreational
# reg.     – regular (verb; vs. irr.)
# sing.    – singular (form)
# standal. – standal. (form)
# tech.    – technology, technologic
# v.       – verb; word for doing something
# vs.      – /versus/ Latin for "as opposed to", "as compared to"
# zool.    – zoology, zoologic; related to animal life forms
# Unless otherwise specified, words are common in MGV.

~al:(reg. strong v., past form)
~au:(reg. strong v.)
~aya:(reg. strong verb-based noun)
~ik:(standal. adj. form)
~lar:(pl. form, except with numbers)
  ex=Kal'uh nash-veh..:Let me! [from /kal-tor/]
  ex=Vasha'uh yel-hali t'nemut..:Destroy the enemy starship! [from /vashau/]
  ex=Tu'ash'uh svep..:Open the door! [from /tu'ash/] 
~'voh:(imp. hon.)
  ex=Kal'voh nash-veh..:Let me!
  ex=Vasha'voh yel-hali t'nemut..:Destroy the enemy starship!
  ex=Tu'ash'voh svep..:Open the door!
~-kam:dear ~ (affection)
a'rak(-~|ik):positive (polarity) ~ {adj.} {anc.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /á-rhak/, meaning "good direction"]
  # a'rak-ayaunik nuk-vihish-tauf:[see /vihish/]
  raf-a'rak(-):electropositive ["?-positive"]
abi'~:until ~ {prep.}
  fi-zhel-aborayek:strap-on booster {aero.} ["on-strap-?"]
  abukhau:(to) rule over {arch.} ["up-rule"?]
    (abu)khausu:ruler (person) {n.} {arch.}
  abu'le:upwards {anc.} [from CLGV /apu'leh/ and AGV /ápuullh/]
    abuli(-~|ik):vertical {adj.}
  abunaf:uplink {n.} {aero.}
  kahr-abu:zenit (directly up) ["?-up"]
  abrashau:(to) pick up
    ex=Abrashau reshnek Kardassu pi'natuhn s'kitau-skaf.:The angry Cardassian picks up the small box from the desk.
  abru'~:above|over ~ {anc.} [from CLGV /apru'/ and AGV /ápruu/]
    abrupik:dominant (adj.; biol.) 
      abrupik'es:dominance ["dominant-noun"; inferred]
        ul-abrupik'es:partial dominance {zool.} ["partial-dominant-noun"]
Abu-Sihm'bel:Abu Simbel {borr.} {arch.}
achut:brush {n.}
  puyan-achut:cleaning brush [see /puyek/]
  zud-achut:toothbrush ["?-brush"; see /zud/]
af'tum:kitchen|galley {anc.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /àffu'dúmh/, meaning /cooking chamber/]
ahkh:war {anc.} {borr.} [from ancient non-Golic]
  ahkhsu:warrior {anc.} ["war-person"]
ahm:name {anc.} [from CLGV and AGV]
  ex=Svi'ahm t'Surak ra..:What in Surak's name?!? ["In-name of-Surak what!!!"]
ahn-wun:/ahn-wun/ (traditional melee weapon with leather-strips and metal balls at the ends; anc.) [also transcribed /ahn-woon/]
ang'klung:Angklung {mus.}
anuh'dzhuhr:onager (asiatic ass) {borr.} [from FSE]
ahs:jaw {n.} {anc.} [from CLGV and AGV]
  ahs-fam(-~|ik):jawless ["jaw-without"]
    ahs-fam-aluk:jawless fish ["jawless-fish"; see /ahs/]
aifa:these {anc.} [from CLGV /aifu/ and AGV /ayivu/]
aikum:moon {n.} [from CLGV; AGV form is unknown, although possibly related to /álh'úmú/, meaning "companion"]
aitlu:(to) desire [irr. strong v.]
  ex=Aitlu Sonok yokul sash-savas.:Sonok wants to eat /sash-savas/.
  ex=Aitlu T'Luki foshuhl rasath.:T'Luki wants to lose weight.
  ex=Aitlu nash-veh hal-tor.:I want to go. ["Wants this-one to-go."]
  ex=Aitlu nash-veh trasha.:I want to leave. ["Wants this-one to-leave"]
  ex=Aitlu tu nash-gad nuh'irak hal-tor.:You want to go too far today. ["Want you today too-far to-go."]
  aitlun:desire {n.}
ak('~):soon ~ {anc.} [from CLGV and AGV]
  ex=Vun ak'hal-tor sa-veh.:He must go soon. ["Must soon-go he."]
  ex=Ri dotor au ak'hal-tor na'Terra.:They are not planning to go to Earth soon. ["Not plan they soon-go to-Earth."]
ak'spra:heretic {n.} {anc.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /ahr'shprátu/, meaning "one who goes against what is written"]
  akansu:alien {n.}
akarshif:a long time
akhlami:among us
alem:salt {anc.} [from CLGV and AGV]
  alem-tukh:sodium ["salt stuff", because common salt is comprised of sodium and chlorine]
aluk:fish {n.} {anc.} [from CLGV; AGV form is unknown]
    abu-vla-nu'leyik khlup-aluk:upside-down jelly(fish) {zool.} ["upward-?-down-? ?-fish"]
    kus-vakhik khlup-aluk:bell jelly(fish) {zool.} ["?-? ?-fish"; see /kus-vakh/]
ar'kada:(to) work ["?-same-rotation"?]
  ar'kada-has:occupational disease {med.}
  ar'kada-pthak|zup-pthak:ergophobia ["work-?"]
  ar'kadan:work (n.) ["?-same-rotation"?]
  fi'ar'kadan:working|at work
    ex=Sonok heh T'Luki fi'ar'kadan.:Sonok and T'Luki are working.
  raf-ar'kada-vellar:electronics (equipment) {tech.}
arev:desert wind {?GV} [from ST:ENT "The Forge"]
arlanga-tukh:yttrium [chemical element first found in the Arlanga mountain range]
asal:morning {anc.} [from CLGV /ashahl/, derived from AGV /aξ'àl'el/, the rising (time)]
  # asal-yem:[see /yem/]
ash'el (MGV)|ash-vel (TGV):shoe {n.} ["treading thing"]
  ash'ai:sock {n.}
ashau:(to) love
ashiv:repeat|repetition {n.}
  k'ashiv:often ["with-repetition"]
  wuh'ashiv:another ["one-repetition"]
  ashiv-tor:(to) repeat
ask'er:soldier {borr.}
au:they|them {anc.} [word from CLGV, derived from AGV /á/]
  oau:they|them [about superiors or honored persons, "honored they/them"]
  t'au:their|theirs ["of-them"]
ausham:venom {anc.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /áξumh/]
aushfa:animal {n.}
  aushfamaluhr:animalic {adj.}
  falek'es-tash-aushfa:bomeotherm {n.} {ocean.} ["temperature-control-animal"]
  lesek-mal-aushfa:arthropod {biol.} ["joint-leg-animal"]
  spahk-mal-aushfa:crustacean {biol.} ["claw-leg-animal"]
  wehk-mal-aushfa:myriapod {biol.} ["many-leg-animal"]
  ulef-masu-aushfa:amphibian {n.} ["half-water-animal"]
avon:hunger {n.} [from CLGV /avonn/, derived from AGV /àfhonnh/]
  k'avon:hungry ["with-hunger"]
    ex=Sa-kan k'avon hi ko-kan rik'avon.:The boy is hungry but the girl is full.
    ex=k'le-matya k'avon:with the hungry /le-matya/
    ex=Raidzhelsu k'avon heh k'mag.:The Rigellians are hungry and thirsty.
  rik'avon:full (no longer hungry) ["without-hunger"]
ayau:(to) tilt [inferred]
  ayaun(-~|ik):tilted [inferred]
    ayaun-sahriv:Tilted storm
    ayaun-abu-yumaya:Tilted updraft
    # a'rak-ayaunik nuk-vihish-tauf:[see /nuk-vihish-tauf/]
    # u'rak-ayaunik nuk-vihish-tauf:[see /nuk-vihish-tauf/]
ba-tak:tradition (anc., borr.)
  baik:traditional (standal. adj.)
  ba-~:traditional ~
    Ba-Gol-Vuhlkansu:Traditional Golic Vulcan (language)
    Ba-Golik:Traditional Golic
  # bali le-suma-marshak:heavy floe ["thick ?-?-?"; see /le-suma-marshak/]
  bali-bru-nosh:pachycheilia {med.} ["thick-?-?"]
  bali-fekik:pachycaul {biol.} ["thick-?"]
  bali-wadi-nosh:pachyderma ["thick-?-?"]
balkra:/balkra/ (a type of aromatic casserole) {anc.}
bah-ker:garden {anc.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /báha-kèrru/, meaning "food yard"]
bai'~:by means of|through|via {obs.} [see /fna'/]
bar-kas:spice {n.} {anc.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /bárrh-kàξu/, meaning "tongue-biter", an effect of spices]
batai:sturdy {anc.} [Batai was the name of Kamin's sturdy son in Ressik province on another planet; see TNG "The Inner Light"]
be'~:beside|by|near|next to|very close to ~
  behsu:neighbor {n.} ["next-to person"]
  betau:(to) approach [reg. strong v.]
    ex=Betau nesh-kur sehlat mol-kur svai svi'ne-yartra.:The black /sehlat/ approaches the magenta flower in the meadow.
    betaya:approach {n.}
Beidzhorsu:Bajoran {n.}
  beidzhorsu:Bajoran {adj.}
    ex=shi'kwai beidzhorsu:Bajoran wilderness ["wilderness Bajoran"]
bek:wait {n.}
  bek-tor:(to) wait
  la'bek:here-wait, wait here
    la'bek-tor:(to) wait here
Ben:to us (TGV)
  ex=>Ben vahl navun.<:"Grant us success." ["To-us grant success."]
bes:drawing {anc.} [from CLGV /bæs/ and AGV /b'hàs/]
bezhun:eye {anc.} [from CLGV /bæshun/ and AGV /b'hàshúnh/]
  bezhun-masu:tear(s) {n.} ["eye-water"]
bi'~:along ~
bolau:need {v.}
  ex=Bolau sa-veh yokul ein-vel.:He needs to eat something. ["Needs he to-eat something"]
  ex=Bolau etek oren-tor uf hash-tor.:We need to learn how to fly. ["Need we to-learn how to-fly."]
  ex=Bolau ish-kan oren-tor nazhu-tor.:That child needs to learn to listen. ["Needs that-child to-learn to-listen."]
  Borg Praim:Borg Prime
  borgik mesakh-tchas-vistra:Borg transwarp network
Borkuh (Beituh Haidri):Borka (Beta Hydri)
buhfik:perfect {adj.}
d'mallu:/D'mallu/ (a type of carnivorous plant) {anc.}
da:pebble {n.}
dah:two {enum.}
  ex=Shitau T'Luki nau lipau eh dah ru'lut-sai fi'nef.:T'Luki puts 9 knives and two napkins on the shelf. ["Put T'Luki 9 knife and two napkin on-shelf."]
  dahik:two {adj.}
  dahkuh:two {card.}
  dah'rak:second {ord.} {TGV}
    dahr-~:second {ord.}
    dah-halek:bicycle ["two-goer", as in a conveyance with two wheels]
    dah-wak:twice ["two-times"]
dakh:(to) cast out
  ex=>Dakh orfikkel aushfamaluhr shaukaush fi'aifa mazhiv.<:"Our ancestors cast out their animal passions here on these sands." ["Cast-out ancestors animal passion(s) on-these sands."]
dan:rotation {anc.} [from CLGV /dahn/ and AGV /dhánh/]
  danau:(to) explain ["rotate (knowledge) around"; reg. strong v.; from CLGV, derived from AGV /dháná/.]
    ex=Danau Sonok lof na'T'Luki.:Sonok explains the purpose to T'Luki.
  padan:spin (rotation) {n.} {aero.}
    pada-tor:(to) spin (rotate) {aero.}
  da-fek:axle ["turn(ing)-pole"]
  da-rala-hali: helicopter ["turning-wing-vehicle"]
  da-sfek:axis|pivot ["turn(ing)-point"]
  da-tor:(to) rotate
dan-~:~est|most ~ (superlative)
  ex=Sehlat t'Soval dan-suk t'elkhrul-shal.:Soval's /sehlat/ is the biggest of the whole area. ["/Sehlat/ of-Soval most-big of-whole-area."]
  ex=Skladan t'ko-veh na'spanakhat dan-yauluhk t'ek.:Her message for the government is the most important of all. ["Message of-female-one for-government most-important of-all."] 
  dap-lan-pa:/dap-lan-pa/ (children's game) {anc.} ["spot-?-?"]
  reh-dap:three-spots ("∴") ["three-spot"; used as "etc." is used in FSE]
    ex=Bolau mahr-tor Spolk dunaplar - dun - neshuk ∴:Spolk needs to buy books, paper, ink, etc.
dau:(to) affect {anc.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /dhá/]
  daya:effect {n.}
dawan:/dawan/ (an undependable person) {anc.} [from CLGV /dal'wanu/ and AGV /da'w'lhán/]
dif:long life
  dif-tor:(to) live (a) long (time)
    Dif-tor heh smusma.:Live long and prosper.
      ex=>Dif-tor heh smusma - Spohkh.<:"Live long and prosper, Spock." ["To-live-long and to-prosper, Spock."]
dohn:board|plank {n.}
  ex=Soval weh-suk do Stola.:Soval is bigger than Stola. ["Soval more-big than Stola."]
  ex=Skladan t'nash-veh na'ko-veh weh-yauluhk do t'du.:My message for her is more important than yours. ["Message of-this-one for-female-one more-important than of-you."]
  ex=Kelek t'Soval weh-suk do dan-suk t'besular.:Soval's house is bigger than the biggest house of his neighbors. ["House of-Soval more-big than most-big of-neighbors."]
  ex=>Dom - ki'sarlah.<:"So, it has come." ["So, (it) has-come."]
don-ka:rich {n.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /dónh-ká/, meaning "money-having"]
  dor-~:honorable ~
  dorlan:honorific {n.}
  ridor-~:dishonorable ~
  pudor-tor:(to) be honored
du|tu:you {sing.} [/du/ when alone or after consonant, /tu/ otherwise]
  Qual se tu.:Is it you? {anc.}
  odu:you ["honored you-singular"; to a superior or honored person]
  dular|tular:you {pl.} [/dular/ when alone or after a consonant, /tular/ otherwise]
    odular:you ["honored you-plural"; to superiors or honored persons]
    t'dular:your|yours {pl.}
  t'du:your|yours {sing.}
    ex=Yokul nash-veh yarmok t'du.:I eat your salad. ["Eat this-one salad of-you."]
dun:paper {anc.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /dúnh/, a papyrus-like paper made from the fibers of an edible root]
  dunap:book {n.} [from CLGV /dunapi/, derived from AGV /dúnh-abù/ "scroll"]
dungi(-~):will {v.}|(future form)
  ex=dungi kal-tor:will let [weak verb, /dungi/ not affixed]
  ex=dungi-palikau:will ~ [strong verb, /dungi/ affixed]
  ex=Dungi-trasha etek.:They will leave.
  ex=Dungi etek trasha.:*They* will leave. [different shades of meaning or emphasis]
  ex=>Dungi tu sahrafel?<:"Will you trust (me)?" ["Will you trust?"; /ha/ is omitted in future tense]
  ex=Dungi hal-tor du wilat.:Where will you go? ["Will go you where."]
  ex=Dungi gla-tor etek ha'gel.:We will see the light. ["Will see we light."]
  ex=Dungi nem-tor T'Luki yon-kur dunap.:T'Luki will take the yellow book.
  ex=Dungi-yokul Sonok yarmok.:Sonok will eat the salad.
  ex=Dungi stron-tor kushel s'kraisek.:The bird will escape from the cage.
  ex=Dungi nashiv-tor le-matyalar kuht t'sehlat t'au.:The /le-matyas/ will attack their herd of /sehlats/. ["Will attack /le-matyas/ herd of-/sehlat/ of-them."]
  ex=Dungi tal-tor ko-kan tal-muv heh klachek fi'pasu.:The girl will find the key and the lock on the table.
  ex=Dungi fas-tor sa-kan khi-gad-yem heh leipau kap.:The boy will cook the lunch and bake the bread.
  ex=Dungi hal-tor Sonok na'kahr.:Sonok will go to the town.|Will Sonok go to the town?
  ex=Dungi hash-tor T'Luki shan-hali vi'stukh.:T'Luki will fly the shuttle to outer space.
  ex=Dungi-halovau au na'Shi'Kahr klepovau.:They will travel to Shi'Kahr for shopping.
  ex=Dungi-yaretau tomasular t'du eshikh.:Your relatives will visit the desert.
  ex=Dungi-yokul du aru-yem.:You will eat the dinner.
  ex=Dungi gla-tor au wuh'rak yel t'khru wilat.:Where will they see the first star of the evening? ["Will see they first star of-evening where."]  
dukal:ball {n.}
dvar:risk {n.}
  dvar-tor:(to) risk
  dvel-tor:(to) choose
    dvelek:selector [inferred]
      glashau-nuk-dvelek:scan mode selector {tech.} ["?-low-selector"]
dvin:service {n.} [providing something to]
  kadvin:commission {naut.} ["same-service"]
    s'kadvin:out of commission
    sakadvin-tor:(to) decommission
      sakadvin:decommissioning {n.} 
  kef-has-dvintra |KHD|:Emergency medical service (EMS) ["emergency-medical-service-there"]
  dvin-tor:(to) serve
    ex=Dvin-tor T'Luki yar-sazhlar heh zhar-savaslar.:T'Luki serves green legumes and orange fruits.
dvun:move(ment) {n.}|motion {n.}|moving {ger.}
  dah-da-sfekik gol'dvunek:coaxial relay ["two-?-point help-movement-noun"]
  dvunel:motion {biol.}
    dvunel-eik'es:range of motion {med.} ["motion-?"]
    dvunel-has-mar:kinetosis {med.} ["motion-medical-?"]
    na-dvunel:adduction {med.} ["?-motion"]
    sa-dvunel:abduction {med.} ["away-from-motion"]
  fandvu:gimbal {n.} {aero.} ["any-move"]
    fandvu-tor:(to) gimbal {aero.}
    abunuhal-khardvun:pitch maneuver {n.} ["pitch-?"]
      tereragel-abunuhal-khardvun:rendezvous pitch maneuver {n.} ["?-pitch-?"]
dzharel:/Dzharel/ small, horned, horse-like animal (extinct) {borr.} [/jarel/ in some other Vulcan languages]
eh|heh:and [/eh/ after vowel, /heh/ when standalone or after consonant]
  hau:(to) add
    haya:addition [inferred]
        ex=hayaik pitohlar:additional notes
      hayat(-~):augmentative (~) {n.}
        hayataya:augmentation [inferred]
          thak-hayataya (MGV) | thask-hayataya (TGV):breast augmentation {med.}
          hayatayek:augmentor {tech.}
        hayat-zhit:augmentative {n.} {gr.} ["augmentative-word"]
eik-~:wide(ly) ~
    ek'an:maximum {n.}
    ex=:[see /suk/ for ex.]
ek'zer:gem|jewel {anc.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /àh-zèrrh/, meaning roughly "all-value", from a very ancient practice of using gems as monetary units]
  Ekkuu-Gollisk:Planar Golic (Vulcan language)
ekon:(a) god
  Oekon:God, the Supreme Being
elakh:cable {n.} {tech.}
  elakhtra:cabling {n.}
esh:breath [from CLGV /æsk/ and AGV /àξ/]
  esh-mev:trachea {med.}|airway {biol.} ["breath(ing)-tube"]
    esh-mev-klotaya:airway obstruction {biol.} ["breathe-duct-?"]
  esh-tukh:oxygen ["breath(ing)-stuff"]
    fezhau-vok t'masu-esh-tukh:dissolved oxygen level {biol.} ["?-? of-water-breathe-stuff"]
    # esh-tukh-tuhlek:[see /tuhlek/]
    ek'esh-tukh-kupik:euryoxic {adj.} {biol.} ["all-breathe-stuff-?"]
esta:touch {n.}
  estuhl:(to) touch [irr. strong v.]
    ex=Estuhl sa-kan aluk.:The boy touches the fish.
    ex=>Estuhl terrupik khaf - Spohkh.<:"It touches your human blood, Spock." ["Touch Terran blood, Spock."]
etek:we|us (normal mode)
  t'etek:our|ours ["of-us"]
  etwel:us (formal mode)
    oetwel:we|us [when spoken by superiors about themselves, literally "honored we/us"]
    k'etwel:with us
      ex=:[see /tah/ for ex.]
    s'etwel:from us
fa':before|in front of
  fa(-)~:fore~|front-~|frontal ~|anterior ~|bow(-)~ {naut.}
    fa-wak:future ["fore-time"]
      fa-wak glansu:prophet ["future sight-person"; see /glan/]
        ofa-wak glansu:The Prophet {hon.}
      nenik fa-wak-wis:simple future (tense) ["simple future-tense"]
fai-tukh:knowledge ["know-stuff"]
  faik:data [inferred from /faik-vistra/]
    # faik-vistra:[see /vistra/]
faka:hernia {n.}
fal(-~):hot ~
  falek:heat ["hot-all"]
    ex=Nam-tor falek be'yon.:It is warm by the fire. ["Be heat by-fire."]
    falek'es:temperature ["hot-all-noun"]
  fal-tor:(to) rejoin ["hot-to-do"]
    fal-tor-pan:refusion {anc.} [ceremony to rejoin the body and katra]
falun:charge {n.} {elect.}
  falun-krus:ion ["charge-part"]
    saya-kapol t'falun-krus:ion radiation filter ["?-? of-ion"]
    falun-krus-tel:ionic bond {geol.} ["ion-?"]
    falun-krus-tukh:electrolyte {med.} ["ion-stuff"]
    falun-krus-yeturek:ion drive ["ion-drive"]
    a'rak-falun-krus:cation ["positive-ion"]
    vukh-masu-rubaisu (s'fezhal-falun-kruslar):osmoconformer ["?-water-? (from-?-ions {pl.})"]
    vukh-masu-pakhartausu (s'fezhal-falun-kruslar):osmoregulator ["?-water-? (from-?-ions)"]
  falun-shetaya:ionization ["charge-?"]
  falun-tersal-el'mish:charge coupled device (CCD) ["charge-?-?"]
  a'rak-falun:positive charge {sci.} ["positive-charge"]
  shi-raf-falun:electrostatic charge {meteo.} ["place-?-charge"]
  u'rak-falun:negative charge {sci.} ["negative-charge"]
  fan-vel:anything ["any-thing"]
  # fan-yokulsu:[see /yokulsu/]
  # hai-fan-wan:[see /fan-wan/]
  # hai-fan-wan:[see /wan/]
farr:time (anc., obs.) [only used poetically in Golic Vulcan]
fasei:this (here)
  fassu:cook {n.}
  fas-tor:(to) cook
    ex=Fas-tor opilsu steh natya sazh.:The chef cooks 7 different legumes. ["Cook chef 7 different vegetable."]
fereik:(to) create|invent [inferred]
    Ofereiksu:the Creator [deity]
  vunai-ferek t'wel-raf-tepul (VFWRT):neuro-electric field generator ["field-generator of-?-?-?"]
    leshanik fosh-vunai-ferek (LFVF):portable force field generator ["? ?-field-?"]
    wak-vunai-ferek (WVF):temporal field generator ["time-field-?"]
    sakwitayek-vunai-ferek (SVF):deflector field generator ["?-field-?"]
fi'~:on|atop|upon ~
fna'~:through|via|due to
  fnashtau:(to) sweep
    ex=Fnashtau T'Luki lan-tol.:T'Luki sweeps the floor.
  fnash-vel:broom ["sweep-thing"]
fnau-~:tame ~
fnu-ven:hatred {anc.}
fo:shell {anc.}
    foshuhl:(to) shed [irr. strong v.]
fulag:lead {n.} [as in a race]
  fu-~:proto-~ {sci.}|before|leading ~
  fulag-tor:(to) lead
gabuluh:party (celebration) {n.} {rec.}
gad:day [inferred]
  ek'gad:all day
  nash-gad:today ["this-day"]
    ex=Nash-gad Sonok heh T'Luki fi'ar'kadan svi'solai.:Sonok and T'Luki are working in the field today.
gahv-~:purple ~
galat-vulu:angle of heel {e-g-a}
galu:atom {n.}
  galu(-~|pik):atomic {adj.}
  samuyek t'seshan-galu-gasu:Magnatomic flux chiller ["? of-?-atom-?"]
  a'gal:proton|positron ["positive-?"]
    a'gal-lushun:proton torpedo ["proton-?"]
    tehn-a'gal:antiproton ["anti-proton"]
  ha'gal:photon [inferred]
    ha'gal-dataya:photon propulsion
    ha'gal-lushun:photon torpedo (photorp)
      ha'gal-lushun-mev:photon torpedo tube
      ha'gal-lushun-spusayek:photon torpedo launcher
      ha'gal-lushun-sutauk:photon torpedo bay ["photon-torpedo-?"]
    ha'gal-thorshek:photon grenade
    na'gal-sayek:polaron emitter
    na'gal-vunai:polaron field
  pi'gal:particle [inferred]
    nen-pi'gal:elementary particle|fundamental particle
    ritsuri-pi'gal:exotic particle
    sih-pi'gal:alpha particle
    tih-pi'gal:beta particle
    vifalunal-pi'gal:charged particle [inferred]
      patalek t'nuk-tepulik vifalunal-pi'gallar:low-energy charged-particle detector ["? of-low-? ?-particles"]
    pi'gal-sahrayek:particle accelerator
    pi'gal-zehl:particle beam
      pi'gal-zehl-mishu:particle beam engine
    pu'gal-kashek:baryon sensor
    pu'gal-su'us:baryon number
    sahr'gal-glashayek:tachyon scanner
    sahr'gal-vunai:tachyon field
    sahr'gal-zehl:tachyon beam
    thahk-ska'gal-zehl(ek):coherent neutrino beam
  thor'gal:thoron [inferred]
    leshanik thor'gal-ferek:portable thoron generator (PTG)
    thor'gal-kolau-sayek:thoron shock emitter ["?-shock-?"]
    u'galik numo-zan-vel:electron microscope
    u'gal-fo:electron shell
    u'gal-glashaun:electron scanning
    u'gal-ha'zehl:electron beam ["electron-beam"]
    u'gal-kusilau-glashayek (UKG):electron resonance scanner
    u'gal-pohshek:electron gun
    u'gal-salash:electron stream
    u'gal-shif:electron pair ["electron-pair"]
    u'gal-shivak:electron mass
    u'gal-thorshkau-kwitek:electron bombardment thruster
    u'gal-yumau-tal:electronics {edu.}
    u'gal-zehl-mev:cathode ray tube (CRT)
    el-u'gal:free electron
    razh-u'gal-shif:exciton ["?-electron-pair"]
    tehn-u'gal:positron ["anti-electron"]
    wak'gal-zehl(ek):chroniton beam
  galutravek:molecule ["atom-there-?"]
    galutravek-glakuv-glashayek:molecular imaging scanner (MIS) ["atom-there-?-?-?"]
  ne-galu-feshelek:subatomic disrupter
  galu-dahshaya:(nuclear) fission
    galu-dahshau-folayek:fission reactor
    galu-dahshau-torvak:fission product ["atom-separate-?"]
    galu-dahshau-yehat:fissionable {adj.}
  galu-dataya:nuclear propulsion
  galu-folayek:nuclear reactor
  galu-kaunshaya:(nuclear) fusion {phys.}
    galu-kaunshau-folayek:fusion reactor
    galu-kaunshau-thorshek:fusion bomb
  galu-mesurubah:atomic transmutation
  galu-pa'ashtra:atomic plane
  galu-raf-dataya:nuclear-electric propulsion (NEP)
  galu-rasath:atomic weight
  galu-sagauk yon-hashek:nuclear pulse rocket
  galu-sakuvu:atomic radius
    (galu-)saya-saikhut:Radiation suit (radsuit)
  galu-shivak:atomic mass
  galu-su'us:atomic number
  galu-tepul:atomic energy
    galu-tepul-torvayek:nuclear power plant
  galu-thorshek:atomic (fission) bomb
  galu-velek:atomic structure
  galu-wak-wel:atomic clock
  galu-wun:atomic|nuclear weapon
  galk:radical {chem.} [inferred]
    el-galk:free radical {chem.}
gel:branch|path|segment {n.}
  gen-lis-tal:linguistics ["language-study"]
gish:(to) expect
  ex=Gish etek fa-gad lasha.:They expect to arrive tomorrow. ["Expect they tomorrow to-arrive."]
  ex=>Gishen worla ihk-banut.<:"He's never what I expect." ["What-is-expected never the-one-of-which-is-spoken."]
glan:sight {anc.} [from CLGV /glann/ and AGV /glánh/]
  glantau:(to) watch
    ex=Glantal Stonn tevyan-morlar taman svi'salan.:Stonn watched the falling leaves dancing in the wind. ["Watched Stonn falling-leaves dancing in-wind."]
    toglantau:(to) witness
  glan-fam-~:blind ~ ["sight-without"]
    glan-fam'es:blindness {med.}
  # fa-wak glansu:[see /fa-wak/]
  mathra-glayek:disk camera
    glayek-el'torausu:cameraman|camera operator
  raf-glayek:electric eye
  gla-tor:(to) see
    ex=Vesht gla-tor Sonok kus-vakh - dunap - ha'fek heh math.:Sonok saw a bell, book, candle and plate.
    ex=Vesht gla-tor nash-veh sehlat na'svep.:I saw a sehlat at the door. ["Saw this-one sehlat at-door."]
    gla-~:optical {tech.}
glozho:elixir {anc.}
  glu-masu-shal:benthic zone ["deep-water-zone"]
  glu-masu-tin t'suk'muzh:hypolimnion ["deep-water-layer of-lake"]
gluvau:(to) display [inferred]
  (gluvau-)math:panel (display) ["(display-)board"]
  per-gluvaya:play (n.; performance of drama or comedy, etc.)
  gluvayek:display|monitor (viewscreen) {n.}
    nel-gluvayek:main viewer {tech.}
    su-shi-gluvayek:personnel locator display ["person-place-display"]
    tum-vel-gluvayek:computer display ["tally(ing)-thing-display"; see /tum-vel/]
    gluvayek t'saga-glanum-mathralar (GSGM):Digital Video Disc (DVD) player ["display of-?-?-?"]
gnal:tumor {med.} [inferred]
  gnal-tal:oncology {med.}
  mev-gnal:angioma {med.} ["pipe-tumor"]
  shad-gnal:brain|cerebral tumor {med.} ["brain-tumor"]
  slah-gnal:fibroid tumor ["fiber-tumor"]
  Gol-Vuhlkansu:Golic Vulcan
  golik:Golic (standalone)
gol'nev:aid|help {n.} [probably not coincidence that GV words with "gol" have to do with "help", "access", and "relay"; people would study with Gol masters for help (controlling their emotions) and insight (philosophy, science)]
  gol-tor:(to) aid|help {n.}
gonaf:button {n.}
    guv-kozauk vel-zhitlar:gender-specific nouns
ha:yes [from {obs.} for "fire"]
  ex=Olau tu has-bosh ha.:Are you feeling ill? ["Feel you ill yes."]
  ex=Gla-tor du dunap t'Sonok ha.:Do you see Sonok's book? ["See you book of-Sonok yes."]
  ex=Ma sa-kan heh ko-kan san-zhellar ha.:"Do the boy and girl have belts?" ["Have boy and girl belts yes."]
  ex=Yokul kosu yarmok ha.:Does the woman eat salad? ["Eat woman salad yes."]
  ex=Yokul sasu kahm ha.:Does the man eat meat? ["Eat man meat yes."]
  ha'gel:light {n.} ["fire-branch"; see /gel/]
    ha'gel-rubah-dvun:phototaxis {biol.} ["light-change-movement"]
    ha'gel-slah-elakh:fiber-optic cable {tech.} ["light-?-cable"]
    ha'fek:candle(stick) ["fire stick"]
  ha'kiv:life {anc.} ["fire-noun"; "fire of being"]
    hasu:being {n.} ["life-person"]
    ha-tor:(to) live {anc.} ["burn-being"; from CLGV /hahthor/ and AGV /hahdhórh/; see /plak-tau/]
      ex=Ha-tor Sonok heh T'Luki svi'pi'kelek svi'suk'solai.:Sonok and T'Luki live in the small house on the big field.
    # ha-guhsh:[see /guhsh/]
    ha-vel:organism ["life-thing"]
  ha'su:angel {n.} {anc.} ["fire-person"]
  haran:fire beast {anc.} {myth.}
ha-vol(-~):tall ~
  ex=Ha-vol Beituh'zedsu glan-fam heh pen Vuhlkansu zhu-fam.:The tall Betazoid is blind and the short Vulcan is deaf.
  ki'haf:basket {anc.} ["have-gap"?; originally a compound word]
  pi'haf:follicle ["small-gap"]
  sa'haf:bladder {bot.}|pouch {n.} {zool.} ["outward-gap"]
    sov-sa'haf:air bladder {biol.} ["air-bladder"]
    vazh-sa'haf:bladder {anat.} {TGV}
      vazhaf:bladder {anat.} {MGV}
halan:voyage|going {n.} {ger.}
  ex=Halan na'krani - toglantal T'Pau tevul t'ifis-hali.:Going to the window, T'Pau witnessed the crash of the transport. ["Going to-window, witnessed T'Pau crash of-transport."]
  abunuhalan:pitch (n.) {aero.}
    ra'abunuhal:pitchover (n.) {aero.}
    abunuhal-tor:(to) pitch {aero.} ["up-down-go"; see /abu/ and /nu/] 
    ak'hal-tor:(to) go soon ["soon-go"; see /ak'/]
    fabehal-tor:(to) pass|overtake ["in-front-of-next-go"; see /fa'/ and /be'/]
  nahalan:going-towards, towards-going
    nahal-tor:(to) go towards ["towards-go"; see /na'/]
  rishihalan:yaw {n.} {aero.} ["not-place-going"]
    rishihal-tor:(to) yaw {aero.} ["not-place-go-to-do"]
  skahalan:getting-off of|disembarkation
    skahal-tor:(to) get off of|disembark ["off-go"; see /ska'/]
      ex=Skahal-tor T'Pol shan-hali.:T'Pol gets off the shuttlecraft. ["Get-off T'Pol shuttlecraft."]
  zahalan (k'):followed (by)
    zahal-tor:(to) follow ["behind-go"; see /za'/]
      ex=Zahal-tor pi'Sonok os nesh-sehlat fna'masupik solai na'fau-yut.:Little Sonok follows the old black /sehlat/ through the wet field to the road.
  halek:wheel {n.} ["go-all"; see /ek/]
    halitra:fleet ["vehicle-mass", meaning a large group of vehicles]
    hali-kel:hangar ["vehicle-structure"]
    belk-hali:scout vessel {aero.} ["?-ship"]
    ifis-hali:transport (vessel)|freighter {n.} ["transport-ship"]
    kla-hil-hali:research vessel ["research-ship"]
    masu-hali:boat ["water-vehicle"]
      ne-masu-hali:submarine ["under-water-vehicle"]
    shan-hali:shuttle ["transfer-ship"]
    stukh-hali:spaceship|spacecraft ["space-vehicle"]
    thorshek-hali:bomber {aero.} ["?-ship"]
      thorshek-hali-travek:bomber group (BG) {aero.} ["?-ship-group"]
        thorshek-hali-suk'travek:bomber wing (BW) {aero.} ["?-ship-big-group"]
    yel-hali:starship ["star-vehicle"]
  halovau:(to) travel|journey
    halovausu:traveler ["travel-person"]
    halovaya:travel {TGV}|journey {n.}
      weh-sahr-ha'gelik halovaya:faster-than-light (FTL) travel ["more-fast-light travel"]
    halovau-tvi'haf:travel pod {aero.} ["travel-inter-gap"]
    mashalovau:(to) sail ["water-travel", see /masu/]
      samashalovau:(to) sail away
        samashalovaun:sailing away
          ex=Pehkal kanlar heh glantal masu-hali samashalovaun.:The children stopped and watched the boat sail away. ["Stopped children and watched boat away-sailing."]
        samashalovaya:away-sailing|sailing-away {n.}
  hal-tor:(to) voyage|go|proceed ["voyage-to-do"; from CLGV /hahlthor/ and AGV /hlahdhórh/]
    ex=Hal-tor Sonak na'ar'kada.:Sonak is going to work.|Sonak goes to work. ["Goes Sonak to work"; do not use gerund in GV]
    mahal-tor:(to) swim ["water-go"; see /masu/]
  dvunel-pi'harr:flagellum ["motion-small-?"]
    dvunel-pi'harr-famik:aflagellar {ocean.} ["motion-small-?-without-adjective"]
has-~:medical ~
  has-bosh(-~):ill|sick ~
hash:flight (act of flying) {n.}
  hashkaf:stage {n.} {aero.}
    weh-abu-hashkaf:upper stage {n.} {aero.} ["?-upper-stage"]
      kahla-fishyanik weh-abu-hashkaf:inertial upper stage (IUS) {aero.} ["?-? ?-upper-stage"]
      dahshaya t'weh-abu-hashkaf:upper stage separation {aero.} ["separation of-?-upper-stage"]
      vravshaya t'weh-abu-hashkaf:upper stage failure {aero.} ["failure of-?-upper-stage"]
      yonan t'weh-abu-hashkaf:upper stage ignition {aero.} ["fire? of-?-upper-stage"]
      yontau-pehkaya t'weh-abu-hashkaf:upper stage burnout {aero.} ["fire?-stop of-?-upper-stage"]
    hashkaf-tor:(to) stage {aero.}
    hashsu-shal:cockpit {aero.} ["pilot-zone"]
    ohashsu:ace|expert pilot
  hash-tor:(to) fly
hif-bi:to me (TGV)
hishek:printer (device) 
kla-hil:research {n.}
  ek'tal-kla-hil:scientific research ["science-research"]
  kla-hil-kebitra:research facility ["research-?-there"]
  kla-hil-tor:(to) research ["research-to-do"]
hinek:bone {n.}
  rihinek:cartilage {biol.} ["not-bone"]
    rihinek-gnal:chondroma {med.} ["cartilage-tumor"]
    rihinek-pleshek:cartilage crusher {med.}
  ahs-hinek:jawbone {arch.}
    abru-ahs|-hinek|:maxilla {n.} {ocean.}
    nuk-ahs|-hinek|:mandible {n.} {ocean.}
  fu-pla'hinek-zehl:notochord {med.} ["leading-back-bone-line"]
  hinek-tukh:calcium ["bone-stuff"]
    (ritsuri-)nuk-nosh t'hinek-tukh svi'khaf:hypocalcemia {med.} ["(irregular-)low-condition of-calcium in-blood"]
hitra-~:media ~
  Hitra-Zukitan:Media Script (Vulcan writing script)
hizh-~:quiet ~
    ex=Nesh-sehlat heh pla-kushel pi eh hizhuk.:The black sehlat and the blue bird are small and quiet.
hnuh-~:low ~
  Hnuh-Mershahki:Low Mershaki (Vulcan language)
ho-~:ritual {adj.}
  ex=>T'Ish hokni'es kwi'shoret --<:"This consciousness calling to you from space …" ["Of-that consciousness from-far-away-calling …"]
hutau:(to) shock
  po-hutau:produce an aftershock
i'~:~ now|at this moment
  ex=I'aitlu nash-veh trasha.:I want to leave now. ["Now-wants this-one to-leave."]
  ex=Ri i'aitlu etek trasha.:We do not want to leave now. ["Not now-want we to-leave."]
  ex=I'bolau Soval oren-tor uf hash-tor.:Soval needs to learn how to fly now. ["Now-needs Soval to-learn how to-fly."]
  ex=I'vasha'uh skyem-kushel Rihansu..:Destroy the Romulan bird-of-prey now! ["Now-destroy bird-of-prey Romulan!"]
  i'lasha:(to) arrive now
  t'i:(as) of now
    ex=>T'I kilko-srashiv kitok-wilat.<:"His answer lies elsewhere." ["(Is) of-now answer(-achievement) elsewhere."]
  ex=Tishau ko-veh pelal if.:Which robe does she like? ["Like female-one robe which."]
  ex=Tishau weh-rom ash'ailar if.:Which socks do you like better? ["Like better socks which."]
ifis:transportation {n.}
  ifis-tor:(to) transport ["transport to-do"]
igen:sky {n.}
ihk-banut:the one of which is spoken
ikap:(to) close
  ex=Ikap'uh svep..:Close the door!
ip-sut:(to) hide [irr. strong v.]
  ex=Ip-sut nesh-kur teresh-kah svi'laptra.:The black /teresh-kah/ bird is hiding in the forest.
  ip-sutan:hiding {ger.}
  ip-sui:hiding {n.}
  irak-yet:far enough ["far-driven"]
  nuh'irak:too far
  irak-nahik:telepathic ["far-?"]
is:use {n.}
  nisan:examination|test {n.}
    nis-tor:(to) test
  is-fam-~:useless ["use-without"]
  is-tor:(to) use
    isan:using {ger.}
    neis-tor:(to) use up
      neis:using-up {n.}
ish-~:that ~
  ish-veh:he|she|it ["that-one"; preferred in MGV]
    ex=>Ish-veh ni komihn.<:"He's so human." ["That-one so human."]
    oish-veh:he|she [about a superior or honored person, "honored that-one"]
    ex=>Isha nash-veh Vuhlkansu - pontal na'sochya.<:"I too am a Vulcan, bred to peace." ["Also this-one Vulcan, bred for-peace."]
isachya:hair (multiple strands)
iyi-~:modern ~
  Iyi-Gol-Vuhlkansu:Modern Golic Vulcan (Vulcan language)
  Iyi-Golik:Modern Golic
k'~:with|by ~ 
  k'kan:pregnant ["with-child"]
    k'kan-wak:pregnancy ["with-child-time"]
ka(-~):same ~
  ka-ni-fur:/Ka-ni-fur/ (first ritual of maturity) {anc.}
  ka vah:(the) same as
    ex=Nam-tor dvalar t'du ri ka vah t'au.:Your beliefs are not the same as theirs.
ka'athaira:/ka'athyra/ (Vulcan lute) 
kai:? ["step"?]
kar-an-zhi:/Karanji/ (cactus-like plant; anc.) [/ka-ranji/ in other Vulcan languages]
kari-~:strong ~
  kari-tor-zhitlar:strong verbs
kahm:meat {n.}
  # kahm-yokulsu:[see /yokul/]
kaluk:ear {n.} {anc.}
  kal-tor:(to) allow|let ["lending an ear", "listen to so."]
    ex=>Kal-tor palikau.<:"Let it commence." ["Allow to-commence."]
  kanu:children (TGV)
  kanlar:children (MGV)
kashek (MGV):mind {n.}
  kash-naf:mind meld
  kashkau (TGV):minds
    ex=>Kashkau - Spohkh - wuhkuh eh teretuhr.<:"Our minds, one and together." ["Minds, Spock, one and together."]
  mapi-kashek:very small mind [insult]
  ya'akash:(to) ask {anc.}
  kastik:plant (general term) ["bushy"]
    # kastik-goh-yokulsu:[see /yokul/]
    kastkau:(to) plant
      kastkaya:planting {n.}
  kastra:flora|vegetation {biol.} ["plant-there"]
  kas-elakh:vine {n.}
  kas-fek:stem {n.} ["plant-stick"]
  kas-gel:(bush) branch ["plant-branch"; cf. /lap-gel/]
  kas-khaf:sap {bot.} ["plant-blood"]
  kas-yar-kurek:chlorophyll ["plant-green-coloring"]
  kas-wan-tukh:latex ["plant-white-stuff"]
katau:(to) bring [inferred]
  sakatau:(to) bring out
kau:5 {enum.}|wisdom {anc.}
  ex=Ma tu kau ha'fek.:You have 5 candles. ["Have you 5 candle."]
  kau'rak:5th (TGV)
    kaur-~:5th ~
  kaukuh:5 {card.}
  kauyik:5 {adj.}
kaunshaya:unity [inferred]
ke~:against ~
kef(-~|ik):emergency ~
  kef-ha'kiv-nenikaya (KHN):emergency life support {med.} ["emergency-life-?"]
    kef-has-dvintra (KHD):emergency medical service (EMS)
      kef-has-dvintrasu (KHDsu):emergency medical technician (EMT)
  kef-fisolekau-mal:emergency landing leg ["emergency-on-?-leg"]
  kef-ifisek:emergency transporter ["emergency-transport-all"]
  kef-kipof-shal:emergency battery room ["emergency-?-zone"]
  kef-tanilau-mev t'igen-pa-tukh:emergency atmospheric gas feed ["emergency-?-duct of-sky-gas"]
  kef-thro-svep:emergency hatch ["emergency-?-door"]
  # kef-tuhlau-vis:emergency containment grid [see /tuhlau/]
  kef-rishan-tsorayek:emergency survival compartment ["emergency-?-?"]
  kef-tvi-shal:emergency room (ER) ["emergency-?-zone"]
  kefik has-reh-bikuvsu (KHRB):emergency medical hologram (EMH) ["emergency medical-?-?"]
  kefik tehn-sesh-kwitek:emergency anti-grav thruster ["emergency anti-?-?"]
  keful-tukh:opsonin ["?-stuff"]
  # prah-vel t'kef-kluhvaya:emergency flush intake [see /kluhvau/]
    # kef-kluhvau-krau:emergency flush vent [see /kluhvau/]
keh:four {enum.}
  ex=Dvin-tor sa-kan keh yerak t'shur t'plomik.:The boy serves four bowls of /plomeek/ soup. ["Serve boy four bowl of-soup of-plomik."] 
  keh'rak:fourth (TGV)
  kehik:four {adj.}
  kehkuh:four {card.}
kel:building {n.}
  ha-kel:home ["life-building"; see /ha'kiv/]
kemeskarau:(to) hold against
  kemeskaraya:against-holding {n.}
  khaf-spol:heart ["blood-pump"]
  dah-sfek-kharat:bearing (direction) {naut.} ["two-point-direction"]
  khardvun:maneuver {n.} {aero.}
    khardvu-tor:(to) maneuver {aero.}
khav-~:brown ~
khr(a)~:(mild invective) [like "dang", "darn", "damn", "bloody"; *avoid*]
  ex=Ertau khrasehlat nash-veh.:The darn sehlat is bothering me. ["Bothers darn sehlat this-one"]
  ex=Glan-famau khraikum etek..:The damn moon is blinding us! ["Blinds damn moon us!"]
    khrash-~:violent ~
        ex=Tlingansu khrashik hi Deltasu sochya-bosh.:The Klingon is violent but the Deltan is peaceful.
  khrikh(a)~:~ (severe invective) [like using scatological words and other vulgarities; *avoid*]
    ex=Stal khrikhale-matya ulef t'dzharellar t'etek..:The @#$%& le-matya killed half of our /jarels/! ["Killed @#$%& le-matya half of-jarels of-us!"]
    ex=Nam-tor khrikhigen-va knuk nash-gad..:The @#$%& weather is lousy today! ["Is @#$%& weather lousy today!"]
ki'~:have ~ (perfect past form)
  ex=ki'gla-tor du:you have seen
  ex=ki'tishal etek:we have liked
  ex=Ki'gla-tor du dukal ha.:Have you seen the ball? ["Have seen you ball yes."]
  ex=Ki'gla-tor dular yellar.:You {pl.} saw the stars. ["Have seen you {pl.} stars."]
  ex=Ki'hal-tor Sonok na'kahr.:Sonok has gone to the town.
  ex=Ki'haloval au k'ashiv na'Shi'Kahr klepovau.:They have traveled to Shi'Kahr to shop. ["Have traveled they to-Shi'Kahr to-shop."]
  ex=Ki'yaretal tomasular t'du eshikh.:Your relatives have visited the desert. ["Have visited relatives of-you desert."]
  ex=Ki'yokul du aru-yem ha.:Have you eaten dinner? ["Have eaten you dinner yes."]
  ex=Vesht dungi ki'kital nash-veh.:I would/should have written. ["Would have written this-one."]
kil:spark {n.}
  kil-tor:(to) spark
kilko:answer {n.}
  ex=:[see /t'i/]
kitau:(to) write [reg. strong v.]
  kital:written (by)
  kitaya:writing {n.}
klashau:(to) guard
  ex=Klashau sehlat pla-kur svep.:The /sehlat/ is guarding the blue door. 
  klachek:lock {n.}
    klacha:(to) lock [irr. strong v.]
      ex=Klacha ko-kan svep.:The boy locks the door.
    klachu:(to) lock {aero.} [to be zeroed on in]
klau-bosh(-~):harmful ~
klepovau:(to) shop
  ex=>Kling akhlami buhfik - Saavik-kam.<:"Nobody's perfect, Saavik." ["Not-one among-us perfect, Saavik-(affection)."]
  nu-kliton:down-arrow (" ↓ ") [used as the asterisk is used in FSE with a bottom-of-the-page note]
kloshah:(to) behave
kluf:boot {n.}
kluhvau:(to) flush
  kluhvaya:flush {n.}
    kef-kluhvaya:emergency flush ["?-flush"; inferred, see /kef/]
      prah-vel t'kef-kluhvaya:emergency flush intake
        kef-kluhvau-krau:emergency flush vent
klun:collision {anc.} {obs.} [inferred]
  klu-tor:(to) collide {anc.} {obs.} [inferred]
    klunyau:(to) ram
      klunyanuhp:embolon {arch.} {mil.} ["ram-thought"; flying wedge formation]
      klunyaya:ram {n.} {aero.}
        klunyayek:ram {n.}
      klunyavush:ramjet ["ramming-jet"; see /vush/]
        maweh-klunyavush:scramjet ["?-ramjet"]
        sva-yel-klunyavush:interstellar ramjet ["?-star-ramjet"]
          sva-yel-klunyavush t'Bussard:Bussard interstellar ramjet ["?-star-ramjet of-Bussard"]
      klunya-tavat:ram ratio {aero.} ["ram-?"]
      klunya-vetsaya:ram recovery {aero.} ["ram-?"]
      klunya-vihish:ram pressure {aero.} ["ram-pressure"]
  ko-kan:girl ["female-child"]
    oko-mekh:mother ["honored mother"]
  ko-veh:she ["female-one"; TGV]
      ex=Nem-tor sa-kan dukal t'ko-veh.:The boy takes her ball.
      ex=Yokul le-matya svailar t'ko-veh.:The /le-matya/ eats her flowers.  
  kosu:woman ["female-person"]
    oko(su):lady|madam ["honored woman"]
    ex=T'Luki reh'rak ko-telsu t'nash-veh.:T'Luki is my third wife. ["T'Luki third wife of-this-one."]
kobat:weak [from /ko/ "female"?]
  kobat-tor-zhitlar:weak verbs
Kol-Ut-Shan:/Kol-Ut-Shan/ (IDIC symbol) ["?-transfer"]
kolau:(to) shock [inferred]
  kolau-tviyan t'nel'ashayek:replicator memory core ["shock-? of-?"]
  kolaya:shock {n.} [inferred]
    pid-folau-kolaya:anaphylactic shock ["?-?-shock"]
    kwul-kolaya:concussion ["?-shock"]
    raf-kolaya:electric(al) shock ["?-shock"]
komihn:human {adj.}
  komihnsu:human {n.}
    ten-abul-komihnsu:homo erectus {arch.} ["?-vertical-human"]
korsau:(to) conserve [inferred]
  nala-korsau-haf:vacuole ["cell-conserve-bag"]
    ne-solektra-korsayek:tuber ["sub-ground-conserver"]
  ex=>Sha'koshtri korseivel bai'elkhrul-akteibuhl t'Kolinahr.<:"Our race was saved by attainment of Kolinahr." ["Our-own-race saved through-entire-attaining of-Kolinahr."]
kov:rock|stone [Kov was the name of a Vulcan engineer in "Star Trek: Enterprise"]
  karf-kov:aggregate {n.} {geol.}
    karf-tor:(to) aggregate {geol.}
  ha-guhsh-kov:organic rock {geol.} ["life-debris-rock"; see /ha-gush/]
  ul-kohvik mazhiv-kov:quartzose sandstone {geol.} ["partial-? sand-stone"]
  thas-yon-kov:opal {geol.} ["milk-fire-rock"]
kraffaya:abort {n.} {aero.}
krahkra:it is nothing {anc.}
kraisek:cage {n.}
krani:window {n.}
kras:paint {n.}
  kras-tor:(to) paint
krau:vent {n.} {aero.}
  kraulaya:ventilation [inferred]
    a'rak-vihish-kraulaya:positive pressure ventilation (PPV) ["positive-pressure-?"]
  sakrau-tor:(to) vent {aero.}
kres-~:aggressive ~
krus:part|piece|component {n.}
  krusol:state {pol.} ["part-ground"]
  k'torr:completely lacking {anc.}
    v'tash k'torr:/v'tash k'torr/ ("Vulcans without logic") ["self-control completely-lacking", falsely transcribed /v'tosh ka'tur/; Vulcans who attempt to integrate emotions in their lives] 
  kuht t'sehlat:herd of /sehlats/ ["herd of /sehlat/"]
kum:catch {n.}
  kum-tor:(to) catch|capture {aero.}
    ex=Kum-tor yon-kur le-matya os teresh-kah fi'yut.:The red /le-matya/ catches the old /teresh-kah/ bird on the path.
    kumfa:catcher [animal]
      ravot-kumfa:insect-catcher (small bird) ["insect-catch-animal"]
    kumsu:catcher [person, e.g. in a ballgame]
  kun-ut-travek:marriage party
kup:can {v.}
  ex=Kup kitau nash-veh.:I am able to write. ["Can write this-one."]
  ex=Kup uralau du.:You can/are able to sing. ["Can sing you."]
  ex=Kup hash-tor nash-veh.:I can fly. ["can fly this-one."]
  ex=Kup mahal-tor etek ha.:Are we able to swim? ["Can swim we yes."]
  ex=Kup mavau Sonok heh T'Luki ralash-tanaf.:Sonok and T'Luki are able to play music.
  ex=Kup ip-sut dzharel svi'eshikh.:The /dzharel/ can hide in the desert. 
  kupi:could have|would have|should have
    ex=Kupi ki'kital nash-veh.:I could have written. ["Could have written this-one."]
    ex=Kupi ki'yetur nash-veh.:I could have driven.
    ex=Kupi ki'sarlah kanlar t'dular na'ha-kel.:Your {pl.} children could have come home. ["Could have-come children of-you {pl.} to-home."]
    ex=Kupi ki'dvel-tor au wuh'ashiv dunap ha.:Could they have chosen another book? ["Could have-chosen they another book yes."]
    ex=Kupi ki'tam-tor Kardassu ek'gad.:The Cardassian could have danced all day.
  kup-~:(to) be able (to) ~
    ex=:[see /stariben/]
    ex=Vesht dungi ki'kital du kuv ma wak.:You would have written if you had time. ["Would have written you if have time."]
    ex=Vesht dungi ki'kitau ish-veh kuv ma wak.:He/she would have written if he/she had time.
    ex=Vesht dungi ki'yokul ten-mal Sonok kuv tor-yehat.:Sonok would have eaten early if (it had been) possible.
    ex=Vesht dungi ki'kum-tor mor-gril etek kuv vohris.:The /mor-gril/ would have caught us if we had been slow.
    kuvol:contingency {n.} {aero.}
    vunai-kuvoran:field winding {aero.}
    mokuv:ring ["enclosure"; /mo/ may be omitted in compound words?]
      mokuv-zul-mev:ring dike {geol.} ["ring-lava-duct"]
        nuk-vikuvtra:cay|key {ocean.} ["low-?"]
        viikuftra-~:insular ~
          Viikuftra-Golik:Insular Golic (Vulcan language)
    ret'kuv:washer (spacer) {auto.} ["?-?"]
      klacha-ret'kuv:lock washer {n.} {auto.}
      da-kuv(~-|ik):circular [inferred]
        da-kuv-zuneshek:circular saw ["?-?-?"]
      da-kuvau-~:circulating [inferred]
          va'ash-da-kuvaya:recirculation ["?-?-circulation"]
            va'ash-da-kuvaya t'saguhsh-pa-tukh:exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) ["?-?-circulation of-?-gas"; inferred]
              vidvun-fek-pakuv t'va'ash-da-kuvaya t'saguhsh-pa-tukh:exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) solenoid ["?-?-? of-?-?-circulation of-?-gas"]
              torektra t'va'ash-da-kuvaya t'saguhsh-pa-tukh:exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system ["system of-?-?-circulation of-?-gas"]
              spunek t'va'ash-da-kuvaya t'saguhsh-pa-tukh:exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) valve ["system of-?-?-circulation of-?-gas"]
          da-kuvayek:circulator {aero.}
        da-kuvau-spol:circulating pump
      dahs-da-kuv:equator ["?-?-?"]
        dahs-da-kuv(-~|ik}:equatorial [inferred]
          Dahs-Da-Kuvik Gihni:Equatorial Guinea
          dahs-da-kuvik pa-yut:equatorial orbit {aero.}
      terk-da-kuv:bolt circle {tech.} ["?-?-?"]
    kur-kuv:areola {med.}
    raf-kuv:circuit {tech.}
      raf-kuv t'ralash-netakidaya:noise reduction circuit (NRC) ["circuit of-sound-?"]
      raf-kuv t'vunai-khlop-thon:field geometry circuit {tech.} ["circuit of-field-?-measurement"]
      raf-kuvtra:circuitry ["circuit-there"]
      fukat-raf-kuv:buffer circuit ["?-circuit"]
        ka-zehlik fukat-raf-kuv:isolinear buffer circuit (IBC) ["iso-linear ?-circuit"]
      ikap-raf-kuv:closed circuit {n.} {aero.} ["?-circuit"]
      khartayik tehnyak-raf-kuv:command override circuit ["? anti-?-circuit"]
      vifalun-raf-kuv:charging circuit ["?-circuit"]
      visatilau-raf-kuv:encryption circuit ["?-circuit"]
        feretai t'visatilau-raf-kuv:encryption circuit assembly ["? of-?-circuit"]
      raf-kuv-gol'dvunek:circuit relay ["circuit-?-?"]
      raf-kuv-shayek:circuit breaker ["circuit-break-all"]
      raf-kuv-threshan:circular velocity ["circuit-?"]
    yel-halek-kuv:galactic circle ["galactic-?"]
    kuvish:bearing {n.} {mech.}
      kuvish t'ok-fek-leshek:camshaft carrier bearing {auto.}
      dukal-kuvish:ball bearing {auto.}
kur:color {n.}
  kurau:(to) color
  mu-kur-tukh:melanin ["?-color-stuff"]
  sash-kur-tukh:acidic dye ["acidic-color-stuff"]
  kus-vakh:bell {n.} ["bird-bold" in the sense of "boldly bird-imitating"?; see /vakh/]
  k'kvai'ei:through which [TGV only, rare]
kwai:wild {n.}
kwi'~:from a distance|from far away
  kwi-~:tele~ [rare; see /irak-~/]
  ex=Gish ko-veh nash-gad la'lasha.:She expects to arrive here today. ["Expects she today here-arrive."]
  lasha:(to) arrive {irr. strong v.} ["here-transfer"]
    ex=Lasha kanlar heh sehlat na'yon-kur svep.:The children and the /sehlat/ arrive at the red door.
    lashan:arrival ["here-transfer-noun"]
    lashayan:arriving {ger.}
la'ash:axe {anc.} [originally a compound word]
lafosh:error {n.} {anc.}
  lafot:fault (defect) {n.} {aero.}
    lafot-nisaya:fault analysis {aero.} ["fault-?"]
    lafot-patalan - -sameskaraya eh vetsaya (LP-S|V):Fault Detection, Isolation and Recovery (FDIR) ["fault-?, ? and ?"]
    lafot-ufesan:fault tree {aero.} ["fault-?"]
    lafot-wivel'es:fault tolerance ["fault-?"]
lan:rank [inferred]
  ne-lan:cadet ["under-rank"]
  ot-lan:lieutenant ["?-rank"]
lanet:bottom {geo.}
  lapek:boom (beam, pole) {n.} {aero.}
  laptra:forest ["tree-there"]
  lap-gel:(tree) branch|tree segment [see /gel/]
  ex=Lau tal-tor nash-veh yut fa-gad.:I might find the way tomorrow. ["Might find this-one way tomorrow."]
le-matya:/Le(-)matya/ (large, venomous desert predator) {anc.}
le-suma:ice {anc.}
  dvunan-koval k'le-suma:rock glacier ["moved-rock? by-ice"]
  (dvun-)le-sumatra:glacier ["moving-ice-there"]
    dvun-le-sumatra t'kunel-nen:piedmont glacier ["moving-ice-there of-?-?"]
    dvun-le-sumatra t'ku-li:valley glacier ["moving-ice-there of-?"]
    hafau-kov s'dvun-le-sumatra:erratic {n.} ["?-rock from-moving-ice-there"]
    razh s'dvun-le-sumatra:kettle {geol.} ["? from-moving-ice-there"]
      razh-suk'muzh s'dvun-le-sumatra:kettle lake {geol.} ["?-big-? from-moving-ice-there"]
    titaya-kunel s'dvun-le-sumatra:delta kame ["?-? from-moving-ice-there"]
    ku-li s'dvun-le-sumatra:glacial valley ["?-? from-moving-ice-there"]
    kim-kov-guhsh s'dvun-le-suma:terminal moraine ["?-rock-debris from-moving-ice-there"]
    pa'ash-guhsh-solek s'dvun-le-suma:ground moraine ["?-?-?-? from-moving-ice-there"]
    vla-kov-guhsh s'dvun-le-suma:lateral moraine {geol.} ["?-rock-debris from-moving-ice-there"]
    rukhaul s'rasath t'dvun-le-sumatra:glacial rebound ["? from-? of-moving-ice-there"]
    wuval-ne'ti-kunlak (t'dvun-le-sumatra):drumlin ["?-below-?-? (of-moving-ice-there)"]
    dvun-le-sumatraik tral:glacier surge ["moving-ice-there-related ?"]
    dvun-le-sumatraik zehl-ulidar:glacial striation ["moving-ice-there-related striation"]
    le-sumatra-salan:glacier wind {meteo.} ["ice-there-wind"]
  le-sumau:(to) freeze
    le-sumalik:frozen {adj.}
      le-sumalik asal-masu:frozen dew ["frozen morning-water"]
      le-sumalik sov-masu:sleet|ice pellets ["frozen rain"]
        le-sumalik sov-masu-vikaya:sleet warning ["frozen rain-warning"; see /sov-masu/ and /vikaya/]
    le-sumaunik:freezing [inferred]
      le-sumaunik pi'sov-masu:freezing drizzle {meteo.} ["freezing small-rain"; see /sov-masu/]
      le-sumaunik ihsek:freezing fog {meteo.} ["freezing ?"]
      le-sumaunik sov-masu:freezing rain ["freezing rain"; see /sov-masu/]
    le-sumaya:freeze {n.}
      svitan-vel t'le-sumaya:freezing nucleus ["?-thing of-freeze"]
    le-sumau-sfek:freezing point ["freeze-point"]
    le-sumau-vok:freezing level ["freeze-?"]
  le-sumayek:freezer {tech.} ["freeze-all"]
  le-suma-eiktra:ice shelf ["ice-?"]
  le-suma-haki:ice hockey ["ice-hockey"; borr. from FSE]
  le-suma-ihsek:ice fog ["ice-?"]
  le-suma-khush:ice crystal ["ice-?"]
  le-suma-kunel:pingo {geol.} ["ice-?"]
  le-suma-marshak:(ice) floe {ocean.} ["ice-?"]
    bali le-suma-marshak:heavy floe {ocean.} ["thick ice-?"; see /bali/]
  le-suma-luhdin|izh-luhdin:nieve penitente {meteo.} ["?-?|ice-?"]
  le-suma-pal:ice age ["ice-?"]
  le-suma-pasht:icebound {ocean.} ["ice-?"]
  svitan-vel t'le-suma-shidau:ice nucleus {meteo.} ["?-thing of-ice-?"]
  le-suma-sahriv:ice storm ["ice-storm"]
  le-suma-solektra:permafrost ["ice-ground"]
  le-suma-tal:glaciology ["ice-study"]
    le-suma-talsu:glaciologist ["ice-study-person"]
  le-suma-teraya:pack ice {ocean.} ["ice-?"]
  (masutraik) le-suma-vel:iceberg ["(water-there) ice-thing"]
    kan t'le-suma-vel:growler {ocean.} ["child of-ice-thing"]
      pi'masutraik le-suma-vellar:bergy bits {ocean.} ["deep-water-there ice-things"]
  le-suma-yontaya:frostbite {med.} ["ice-fire?"]
  le-suma-yutshayek:icebreaker {ocean.} ["ice-?"]
  guhsh-solek (s'dvun-le-suma):till {n.}
  ihsek-le-suma:rime (ice) ["?-ice"]
  iraktra-le-suma:field ice {ocean.} ["?-ice"]
  izh-le-suma:shelf ice {ocean.} ["?-ice"]
  marau-le-suma:drift ice {ocean.} ["?-ice"]
  mashalo-le-suma:sailing ice {ocean.} ["sail-ice"; see /mashalovau/]
  masutra'le-le-suma:fast ice {ocean.} ["?-ice"]
  pa'shi-le-suma:clear ice {meteo.} ["clear-ice"]
  ek'le-suma-wein:glaciation ["all-ice-?"]
  pi'uzh-le-suma:pancake ice {ocean.} ["small-new-ice"]
leh:10 {enum.}
  ex=La leh math.:Here are 10 plates. ["Here 10 plate."]
  leh'rak:10th (TGV)
    lehr-~:10th ~
  lehik:10 {adj.}
  lehkuh:10 {card.}
  leh-wuh:11 (enum., card.)
    ex=Shitau Sonok leh-wuh monek heh sheh floku fi'pasu.:Sonok puts 11 cups and 6 spoons on the table. ["Put Sonok 11 cup and 6 spoon on-table."]
    leh-wuh'rak:11th (TGV)
      leh-wuhr-~:11th ~
    leh-wuhik:11 {adj.}
  leh-dah:12 (enum., card.)
    leh-dah'rak:12th (TGV)
      leh-dahr-~:12th ~
    leh-dahik:12 {adj.}
  leh-reh:13 (enum., card.)
    leh-reh'rak:13th (TGV)
      leh-rehr-~:13th ~
    leh-rehik:13 {adj.}
  leh-keh:14 (enum., card.)
    leh-keh'rak:14th (TGV)
      leh-kehr-~:14th ~
    leh-kehik:14 {adj.}
  leh-kau:15 (enum., card.)
    ex=Gla-tor au leh-kau teresh-kah svi'solai.:They see 15 /teresh-kah/ birds in the field. ["See they 15 /teresh-kah/ in-field."]
    leh-kau'rak:15th (TGV)
      leh-kaur-~:15th ~
    leh-kauyik:15 {adj.}
  leh-sheh:16 {card.}
    leh-sheh'rak:16th (TGV)
      leh-shehr-~:16th ~
    leh-shehik:16 {adj.}
  leh-steh:17 (enum., card.)
    leh-steh'rak:17th (TGV)
      leh-stehr-~:17th ~
    leh-stehik:17 {adj.}
  leh-oh:18 (enum., card.)
    leh-oh'rak:18th (TGV)
      leh-ohr-~:18th ~
    leh-ohik:18 {adj.}
  leh-nau:19 (enum., card.)
    leh-nau'rak:19th (TGV)
      leh-naur-~:19th ~
    leh-nauyik:19 {adj.}
  dah-leh:20 (enum., card.)
    dah-leh'rak:20th (TGV)
      dah-lehr-~:20th ~
    dah-lehik:20 {adj.}
    dah-leh kaukuh:25 {card.}
      dah-leh kauyik:25 {adj.}
  reh-leh:30 (enum., card.)
    reh-leh'rak:30th (TGV)
      reh-lehr-~:30th ~
    reh-lehik:30 {adj.}
  keh-leh:40 (enum., card.)
    keh-leh'rak:40th (TGV)
      keh-lehr-~:40th ~
    keh-lehik:40 {adj.}
  kau-leh:50 (enum., card.)
    kau-leh'rak:50th (TGV)
      kau-lehr-~:50th ~
    kau-lehik:50 {adj.}
  sheh-leh:60 (enum., card.)
    sheh-leh'rak:60th (TGV)
      sheh-lehr:60th ~
    sheh-lehik:60 {adj.}
  steh-leh:70 (enum., card.)
    steh-leh'rak:70th (TGV)
      steh-lehr:70th ~
    steh-lehik:70 {adj.}
  oh-leh:80 (enum., card.)
    oh-leh'rak:80th (TGV)
      oh-lehr-~:80th ~
    oh-lehik:80 {adj.}
  nau-leh:90 (enum., card.)
    nau-leh'rak:90th (TGV)
      nau-lehr-~:90th ~
    nau-lehik:90 {adj.}
leipau:(to) bake
  ex=Leipau Sonok kap.:Sonok bakes a bread.
lesek:joint {n.} {anat.}
  # lesek-mal-aushfa:[see /aushfa/]
  # lesek-masu:[see /masu/]
  # lesek-pi'fek:["joint-?-?"; see /pi'fek/]
  el-lesek:synovial joint {anat.} ["?-joint"]
  mal-nef-lesek:knee joint {anat.} ["leg-?-joint"]
  ozh-lesek:knuckle ["?-joint"]
  sa'ovau-lesek:expansion joint {tech.} ["?-joint"]
  li-falik:example|exemplary {adj.}
    ex=li-falik zhit-feim:example vocabulary
litra:culture {med.} [inferred]
  ex=Lasha sa-mekh t'du lu.:When does your father arrive? ["Arrive father of-you when."]
ma:(to) have|own|possess
  ex=Ma sa-kan dukal heh kep - ko-kan mokuv heh leitri.:The boy owns a ball and a gong; the girl a ring and a toy.
  ex=>Ma etek natyan — teretuhr lau etek shetau weh-lo'uk do tum t'on.<:"We have differences. May we, together, become greater than the sum of both of us:" —Surak [">Have we difference — together may we grow greater than sum of-both.<"]
ma~:very ~|highly ~|exceptional(ly) ~|extra~|ultra~
  ex=:see /pi/ and /suk/
  maat-pid-kom:clan matriarch ["clan-high-mother"; from /ko-mekh/]
  pi'maat:family ["small-clan"]
mahr:buy {n.}
  mahr-kel:market|store ["buy-building"]
  mahr-tor:(to) buy
    ex=Mahr-tor Sonok uzh wak-vel.:Sonok buys a new clock.
makh:glass [inferred]
  makh-tuhlau'es:glassiness {geol.} ["glass-contain-noun"]
mal:leg {n.}
  abru-mal:thigh {anc.} ["above-leg"]
  fa-mal:foreleg {biol.} ["fore-leg"]
  ne-mal:shin ["under-leg"]
  mal-nef:knee {n.} {biol.} ["leg-?"]
  mal-nik:ankle {biol.} ["leg-?"]
  keh-shif-malfa:arachnid {biol.} ["four-?-leg-animal"]
malat:nature {n.}
  malatuvauk:naturalized {adj.} {biol.}
  malat-~:natural ~
    malat-dvelan:natural selection {biol.} ["nature-?"]
    malat-lap-shal:natural woodland {biol.} ["nature-tree-zone"]
    malat-nemut:natural enemy {biol.} ["nature-enemy"]
    malat-tal:ecology (study) {biol.} ["nature-study"]
    malat-tash:natural control {biol.} ["nature-control"]
mamut:aid {n.} {obs.}
  mamuk:(to) aid {n.} {obs.}
man:climb {n.}
  man-tor:(to) climb
mantuhs:mantis {zool.} {borr.} [inferred; from FSE]
  ekon-shoretan-mahntuhs:praying mantis {zool.} {borr.} ["?-?-mantis"; from FSE]
    ex=(Nam-tor) nash-gad masupik.:It is wet today. ["(Be) this-day wet."]
    ex=Sonok heh T'Luki masupik heh samek.:Sonok and T'Luki are wet and cold.
    k'mag:thirsty ["with-thirst"]
  nemashau:(to) dehydrate ["under-hydrate"]
    nemashaya:dehydration ["under-hydration"]
  lesek-masu:synovial fluid {med.} ["joint-water"; see /lesek/]
  nuk-masu:? ["low-water"; see /nuk/]
    ulidar t'nuk-masu:low-water mark {geo.} ["scar of low-water"]
      nuk-masu'es-kasik:xeric {adj.} {biol.}
      nuk-masu'es-kastik:xerophyte {biol.}
    svi-wak t'nuk-masu:low-water interval {ocean.} ["inside-time of-low-water"]
    nuk-mashen:low tide {ocean.}
      dan-nuk-mashen:neap tide {ocean.}
  slor-masu:freshwater ["sweet-water"; see /slor/]
    # slor-masu-tuhlek:[see /tuhlek/]
  sov-masu:rain {n.} ["air-water"; see /sov/]
    sov-masu'es:humidity ["air-water-noun"]
math:plate {n.}
mashya:/Mashya/ (a type of vegetable)
mavau:(to) play
mazhiv:sand(s) {n.}
mes'~:across ~
  mesakh'~:beyond ~
  mesah:catwalk {tech.} [lateral access conduit running the entire length of the warp nacelles]
    mesakh-dvunik tvi-shal:transkinetic chamber ["trans-moving inside-zone"]
      mes-sef:transverse dune
  sha'meskar-falek:latent heat ["?-heat"]
  og-lum-mesklam:needle holder
    numo-mevik og-lum-mesklam:microvascular needle holder ["micro-? needle-holder"]
    tvi-khaf-spolik og-lum-mesklam:intracardiac needle holder ["inside-heart needle-holder"]
  (spitau-)zus-meskarayek:drill chuck {tech.} ["(?-)?-?"]
  nalatra-meskaraunik wonil-kik-ruskarayek:tissue holding /tenaculum forceps/ ["cell-? ?-?-?"]
  to-mesksu:police officer|policeman ["working-?-person"]
    falun-krus-mesnoshek:ion transtator ["ion-transtator"]
  messahran:overrunning {n.} {meteo.} ["across-running"]
  messolektra-izh-haltan:cross-country skiing ["cross-ground-?-?"]
  mestau:(to) contact [inferred]
    mestaya:contact {n.} [inferred from /mestaya-ek'rubah'es/]
      mestaya-gisam:contact poison {biol.}
    abru'mesukh:across {obs.} ["over-translation"]
    ek'mesukh-stari-vel (ESV):universal translator (UT) ["all-translation-speak-thing"]
    ek'mesukh-zhit-isan:universal grammar {gr.} ["all-translation-word-use"]
    spes-vitoral-mesukhek:voice-activated translator ["?-?-translate-all"]
    yahv-mesukh:calque {gr.} ["?-translation"]
    mesukh-tor:(to) translate
  mesut:bridge (structure)|pons {med.} ["across-noun"]
  mesya:/mesya/ (game similar to "tag")
  mesyut-~:counter(-)~|anti(-)~|retro~|back~ [inferred]
    mesyut-ha'gelan:counter-illumination {ocean.}
    mesyut-kharat-dan:anticyclonic rotation {meteo.} ["?-direction-rotation"]
    mesyut-kharat-dvun:retrograde motion {meteo.} ["?-direction-move"]
    mesyut-kharat-praduk:backdoor front {meteo.} ["?-direction-?"]
      mesyut-kharatik:cum sole {ocean.}  ["?-directional"]
    mesyut-kuran:countershading {ocean.} ["?-coloring"] 
  mes-thonek:calipers {med.} ["across-meter"; see /thonek/]
  mes-tvi-temok:transverse bulkhead ["across-inside-wall"]
  mes-zhel:transverse band {meteo.} ["across-band"]
mev:conduit {tech.}|duct {med.} {tech.}|pipe {tech.}|tube {meteo.} {ocean.} {tech.}|vessel {med.}
  numo-pi'mev:microtubule {biol.} ["microscopic-small-tube"] 
  pi'mev t'kas-sa-nei:pollen tube {biol.} ["small-tube of-plant-?-?"]
  solek-pi'mev-torai:capillary action {med.} ["?-small-vessel-?"]
  solek-pi'mev-masu'es:capillary moisture {med.} ["?-small-vessel-moisture"]
  lap-pi'mev:vein {bot.} ["tree-small-vessel"]
  naskonn-zul-mev:volcanic pipe {geol.} ["?-lava-pipe"]
  khaf-mev-eikangnal:aneurysm {med.} ["blood-vessel-?"]
  kov-mev s'fal-masu-toran:hydrothermal vein {geol.} ["rock-duct from-hot-water-?"]
  mor-mevaya:venation ["?-vessel-noun"] 
  pekh-mev-tal:proctology {sci.} ["?-duct-study"]
  sov-mev-klotaya:air embolism {med.} ["air-duct-?"]
  uzh-khaf-mev:artery {biol.} ["new-blood-vessel"] 
    pi'uzh-khaf-mev:arteriole {biol.} ["small-new-blood-vessel"] 
    tik uzh-khaf-mev:aorta {biol.} ["? new-blood-vessel"] 
  vukhut-mev-tal:angiology {sci.} ["body-vessel-study"]
    vukhut-mevsu:angiologist {med.} ["body-vessel-person"]
  # yokul-mev:[see /yokul/]
  yu-mur-mev:oviduct {biol.} ["?-?-duct"]
  zul-mev:dike (lava) {geol.} ["lava-duct"]
  # mev-gnal:[see /gnal/]
mevak:/Mevak/ (a hollow-stemmed, reed-like plant)
mikh:eye (anc.} {obs.}
min:glow {n.}
  min-tor:(to) glow
    ex=Min-tor yon fna'krani svi'suk'kelek fi'fau-yut.:The fire glows in the window of the big house on the street.
moh:1000000000 (billion, short scale; enum., card.)
  moh'rak:1000000000th (billionth, short scale; TGV)
    mohr-~:1000000000th (billionth, short scale)
  mohik:1000000000 (billion, short scale) {adj.}
mokh:aim {n.}
  mokh-tor:(to) aim
  mon-tor:(to) drink
mor-gril:/mor-gril/ (a wolverine-like animal)
mo'uh:? {borr.}
  abu-solektra-mo'uh:upland moa {zool.} ["up-ground-moa"]
mu'yor:night {anc.} [originally a compound word]
  ex=Gla-tor etek wuh'rak yel t'mu'yor.:We see the first star of the night. ["See we first star of-night."]
  ek'mu'yor:all night 
  ex=Sonok muhl hi T'Luki has-bosh.:Sonok is healthy but T'Luki is ill.
  muhl-bosh(-~):healthy ~
muhs:vapor {n.} {geo.}
  masu-muhs-brun:water vapor plume {meteo.} ["water-vapor-?"]
  masutra-muhs:sea smoke ["?-vapor"] {ocean.}
  # muhs-vihish:[see /vihish/]
muhskito-ruskarayek:mosquito forceps {med.} ["mosquito-?"]
mutau:(to) pass
  mutaya:pass {n.}
  pamutau:(to) bypass)
    pamutaya:bypass {n.}
    pseth-eik-yerakik rilik suk'muzh:bolson ["?-?-? without-? lake"; a semiarid, flat-floored desert valley or depression, usually centred on a playa or salt pan and entirely surrounded by hills or mountains.]
    zul-muzh:lava lake
na'~:at|to(wards)|for ~
nafek:organ {med.}
  pi'nafek:gland ["small organ"]
  Kolinahr:/Kolinahr/ (rigorous training program at Gol to purge oneself of all emotions) ["?-now-discipline"]
    ex=>Kolinahr – k'kvai'ei ek'zherka t'forti foshuhl<:"Kolinahr: Through which all emotion is finally shed." ["Through-which all-emotion(s) finally shed."]
    Kolinahru:/Kolinahru/ [those who have attained /Kolinahr/]
  ex=>Nahp - hif-bi tu throks.<:Your thoughts, give them to me. ["Thoughts - to-me you give."]
  panahp:consideration ["about-thought"; inferred]
    panah-tor:(to) consider ["about-think"]
  nah-tor:(to) think
nakarat:endeavor {n.}
nakh:index {n.}
  nakh-tor:(to) index
    mes-nakh-tor:(to) cross-index
  nala-kaunshaya:fusion {biol.} ["cell-?"]
  nala-litra:cell culture
  nalatra:tissue ["cell-there"]
    nalatra-tin t'el-lesek:synovial membrane ["tissue-layer of-?-joint"; see /lesek/]
    sakasu-nalatra-neshuhk:biotroph ["bring-out-being-tissue-parasite"]
    torupik nalatra-ifis:active transport ["working tissue-transport"]
    tersau-nalatra:connective tissue {biol.} ["connect-tissue"]
  namishau:(to) adjust ["existence-now-verb"]
  nam-tor:(to) be|exist
    ex=Nam-tor la reh Vuhlkansu -- Sarek - Spohkh heh Saavik.:There are three Vulcans here: Sarek, Spock and Saavik.
    ex=Nam-tor wehk pla-kur kovlar svi'solai hi zam yon-kur kovlar.:There are many blue stones on the field but few red stones.
    nam-tor ish:that is ["to-be it"]
a'rak-narak'es:positive polarity
nash-~:this ~
  nash-veh:I|me ["this-one"]
    onash-veh:me [when spoken by a superior about themselves, "honored this-one"]
nashiv:attack {n.}
  nashiv-tor:(to) attack
      ravot-nashivanik:entomopathogenic (adj., med.) ["insect-attacking"]
  a'rak-kraulaya t'dvudau-natuhn:positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) {auto.} ["positive-? of-?-box"]
    a'rak-kraulau-kapol t'dvudau-natuhn:positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) filter {auto.} ["positive-?-? of-?-box"]
    a'rak-kraulau-spunek t'dvudau-natuhn:positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) valve {auto.} ["positive-?-? of-?-box"]
    a'rak-kraulau-torektra t'dvudau-natuhn:positive crankcase ventilation (PCV) system {auto.} ["positive-?-system of-?-box"]
natya(-~):different ~
  ex=>Na'natya-is - natya-shid.<:"For different use, a different form." —Tenek of Shi'Han
nau:9 {enum.}
  nau'rak:9th (TGV)
    naur-~:9th ~
  nauyik:9 {adj.}
  naukuh:9 {card.}
ne'~:below|under ~ {anc.} [from CLGV /næ/ and AGV /nàh/]
    nehau:(to) rot ["under-add"]
      ex=Nehau urozh svi'solai.:The crops are rotting in the field.
    nelau:(to) suppress ["under-might"]
      nelaya:suppression ["under-might-noun"]
        ralash-nelaya:noise suppression {aero.} ["sound-suppression"]
          ralash-nelau-torektra:noise suppression system {aero.} ["sound-suppression-system"]
        spanadvelsu-nelaya:voter suppression {pol.} ["voter-suppression"]
        yon-nelaya:fire suppression {tech.} ["fire-suppression"]
          yon-nelau-torektra (YNT):fire suppression system (FSS) ["fire-?-system"]
          (yon-)nelau-tukh:(fire) suppressant
    # ne-yartra:[see /yar/]
nemut:enemy ["he who takes (e.g. water, without asking)"]
  nem-tor:(to) take
    ex=Vesht tar-tor Surak >Nam-tor ri thrap wilat nem-tor rim.<:Surak said, "There is no offense where none is taken." ["Past say Surak >Be not offense where to-take none.<"]
  busnem-tor:(to) abort {med.}
nen:base|foundation {n.}
    starun-nentular:speech frames ("> — <") [used as quotation marks/double quotes in FSE]
      ex=:[see /nemtor/ for ex.]
    tresh-nentular:split-frames ("¦ — ¦") [used for emphasis, like bolding or capitals in FSE]
      ex=Nam-tor ish ¦suk¦ sehlat..:That is a *big* /sehlat/!
    tuhsk-nentular|wuh-nentular:comment frames|single frames ("| — |") [used like parantheses in FSE]
      ex=Dungi nam-tor keh os-yel-hali | ek s'kadvin | moguhshau.:Four old starships (all out of commission) will be scrapped. ["Will be four old-star-ship (all out-of-commission) scrap."]
  nenikau:(to) support
    nenikaya:support {n.}
  nen(-~|ik):simple ~ {gr.}|primary ~ {tech.}
    nen-su'us:(number) base {n.} {math.}
  sunena:(military) base {n.} {mil.} ["person-base"]
nesh:cut {n.}
  neshuhk:parasite {biol.}
    ek'neshuhk:obligate parasite
    on-neshuhk:facultative parasite
    ul-neshuhk-kastik:partial parasite {bot.} ["partial-parasite-plant"]
  nesh-tor:(to) cut
neshuk:ink {n.}
  nesh-kur:black ["ink-color"]
    ex=Sehlat nesh-kur hi le-matya wan-kur.:The /sehlat/ is black but the /le-matya/ is white. 
    nesh-~:black ~
nev-kur:maroon (color)
nikh:eye {anc.} {obs.} [only used poetically in Golic Vulcan]
nirak:fool {n.} {anc.} [from ST:ENT "Kir'Shara": "SOVAL: [Nirak] was a soldier who lived a long time ago. He was standing watch over the gates of the city of Gol and he saw a cloud on the horizon moving toward him. He thought it was a sandstorm, so he told no one. It was an army. They destroyed the city, but they let Nirak live. His name now means ‘fool’ in our language, […]"]
norn-la-hal:/Norn-la-hal/ (change of status from child to adult) {anc.}
noshau:(to) stand
  nosh:condition [inferred]
    nosh-rubaik tor-zhit:condition-change verb {gr.} ["condition-changing do-word"]
    nosh t'nuk-khaf-spol:bathycardia {med.}
    # nosh-vohraya:[see /vohraya/]
    # nosh-zhit:condition-word {gr.}
    ek'nosh:climate {meteo.} ["all-condition"; inferred]
      suk'shal-ek'nosh:macroclimate {biol.} ["big-zone-all-condition"]
      pi'shal-ek'nosh:microclimate {biol.} ["small-zone-all-condition"]
      pid-samek-ek'nosh:boreal climate {meteo.} ["high-cold-all-condition"]
    esh-pehkaya-nosh:apnea {med.} ["breathe-stop-condition"]
    fam-dvunel-nosh:akinesia {med.} ["without-motion-condition"]
    fam-fnish-nosh:anosmia {med.} ["without-?-condition"]
    rika-tchakat-nosh:astigmatism {med.} ["not-same-?-condition"]
    fam-kitaya-nosh:agraphia {med.} ["without-writing-condition"]
    fam-kur-nosh:albinism {med.} ["without-color-condition"]
    natya-mor-nosh:heterophylly {biol.} ["different-?-condition"]
    fam-naglashaya-nosh:agnosia {med.} ["without-?-condition"]
    rish-nahp-nosh:acataphasia {med.} ["?-thoughts-condition"]
    dvunek-pak-nosh:amyotrophia {med.} ["?-?-condition"]
    (dvunekik) karik'es-pak-nosh:asthenia {med.} ["(?) ?-?-?-condition"]
    fam-sakal-nosh:anorchia {med.} ["without-?-condition"]
    pid-sash-nosh:acidemia {med.} ["high-acidic-condition"]
    ritsuri-sash-nosh:acidosis {med.} ["irregular-acidic-condition"]
    fam-sharushan-nosh:atresia {med.} ["without-?-condition"]
    sokasitau-solek-nosh:tilth {biol.} ["?-?-condition"]
    pid-sovash-nosh:alkalemia {med.} ["high-alkaline-condition"]
    ritsuri-sovash-nosh:alkalosis ["irregular-alkaline-condition"]
    fam-thas-nosh:agalactia {med.} ["without-milk-condition"]
    fam-thasek-nosh:amastia {med.} ["without-?-nosh"]
    ritsuri-vazhaya-nosh:anuria {med.} ["irregular-?-condition"]
    spoh-wadi-nosh:achromasia {med.} ["?-?-condition"]
    fam-zalu-nosh:azymia {med.} ["without-?-condition"]
    pa-noshik:ambient {med.} ["?-conditional"]
    noshtra:characteristic {n.} [inferred]
      prah-noshtralar:acquired characteristics {biol.}
      dau-tukh t'sa-noshtra:androgen {med.} [affect-stuff of-male-condition-there"]
  nuk-~:low-~ [inferred]
    (ritsuri-)nuk-nosh t'spoh-tukh svi'khaf:hypokalemia {med.} ["(irregular-)low-condition of-?-? inside-blood"]
    (ritsuri-)nuk-nosh t'alem-tukh svi'khaf:hyponatremia {med.} ["(irregular-)low-condition of-?-? inside-blood"]
    ritsuri-nuk-nosh t'wadi-kur:hypopigmentation {med.} ["irregular-low-condition of-?-color"]
    nuk-krus-storaya:hypoplasia {med.} ["low-part-?"]
    uzh-khaf-mev t'nuk-vukhut:iliac artery {med.} ["new-blood-? of-low-?"]
    os-khaf-mev t'nuk-vukhut:iliac vein {med.} ["old-blood-? of-low-?"]
    nuk-khaf-ne'hish:hypotension {med.} ["low-blood-?"]
    nuh'nuk-esh-tukh svi'khaf:hypoxia {med.} ["too-low-breathe-stuff inside-blood"]
    nuk-nosh t'dah-eshu t'nol-tukh svi'khaf:hypocapnia {med.} ["low-condition of-?-? of-?-? inside-blood"]
    # nuk-nosh t'khaf-slor-tukh:hypoglycemia {med.} ["low-condition of-blood-sweet-stuff"; see /slor/]
    skaun-sa'hafik nuk-sharu:pylorus {med.} ["?-? low-?"]
    stek t'skaun-sa'hafik nuk-sharu:pylorus clamp {med.} ["? of-?-? low-?"]
    dahshayek t'skaun-sa'hafik nuk-sharu:pylorus separator {med.} ["two-? of-?-? low-?"]
    nuk-khrash-thoraya:microburst {meteo.}
      pseth nuk-khrash-thoraya:dry microburst {meteo.} ["? low-?-?"]
      masupik nuk-khrash-thoraya:wet microburst {meteo.} ["? low-?-?"]
    # nuk-mashen:low tide {ocean.} [see /masu/]
    # svi-wak t'nuk-masu:low-water interval {ocean.} ["inside-time of-low-water"; see /nuk-masu/]
    nuk-shal|tra|:lowland(s) {geo.}
      nuktru-~:lowlands ~ {obs.}
        Nuktru-Golik:Lowlands Golic (Vulcan language)
    nuk-skaun-ek'ur:gastrointestinal tract ["low-?-?"]
      yonshaya t'nuk-skaun-ek'ur:gastroenteritis {med.} ["? of-low-?-?"]
    nuk-solek:C-horizon {geo.}
    nuk-wan-karf:scud ["low-cloud-?"]
  numo(-~):microscopic ~
    ex=numo-kushel:an insignificant bird [one that is so small that it is almost not worth mentioning, but can also mean that it is a bird that is totally adorable]
    numo-zan-vel:microscope ["microscopic-view-thing"]
  nu'~:down ~
    nu'le:downwards {anc.} [from CLGV /nu'leh/ and AGV /nuuhellh/]
nuh'~:too ~ {adj.}
o'kapi:okapi {borr.} [from FSE]
o~:honored ~
  # osu:sir|madam ["honored person"; see /su/]
ogan:sewing {n.}
  og-tor:(to) sew
    ex=Og-tor Sonok os sai-vel.:Sonok sews old clothes.
oh:8 {enum.}
  ex=Stau oh le-matya sehlatlar t'etek.:Eight /le-matyas/ kill our /sehlats/. ["Kill eight /le-matya/ /sehlats/ of-us."]
  oh'rak:8th (TGV)
    ex=Stehr-sehlat nesh-kur hi oh'rak khav-kur.:The 7th /sehlat/ is black but the 8th is brown. ["Seventh-/sehlat/ black but 8th brown."]
    ohr-~:8th ~
  ohik:8 {adj.}
  ohkuh:8 {card.}
olau:(to) feel
  ex=Olau tu uf.:How are you? ["Feel you how."]
  ex=:[see /ma/ for ex.] 
opi'~:since ~
oren:study {n.}
  oren-tor:(to) learn|study
orfikkel:ancestors {anc.}
orniaga:irritated {anc.} {obs.}
os(-~):old ~
  os-khaf-mev:? ["?-blood-?"]
  ma'os-~:ancient ~
    Mha'us-Gollhìkh:Ancient Golic (Vulcan language)
  ex=Ozhika - fai-tukh heh kenan – nam-tor u'vellar etek saven-tor.:Logic, knowledge and understanding – these are the things we teach.
  ex=>Ozhika -- palik t'kau ri shaht.<:"Logic is the beginning of wisdom, not the end." ["Logic: Beginning of-wisdom not end."]
  k'ozhika:it is logical
    ri k'ozhika:it is illogical
oveh:saint ["honored one"]
ovsot-~:complete {adj.}
  # ovsot-ek'rubah:[see /rubah/]
  ovsotik:complete (adj. stand-alone)
  ovsotuhl-~:total ~ {adj.}
  pa'es-~:general ~
  pa'shi-~:clear ~ ["about-place"]
    pa'shik:clear {adj.}
    pa'shau:(to) clear
      pa'shaya:clearing {n.}
      skapa'shau:(to) clear off
        skapa'shaya:clear-off|clearing-off {n.}
    pa-tukh:gas {n.} {chem.} ["around-stuff"]
  wan-solektra-pahz:? ["cloud-ground-?"]
    a'rakik wan-solektra-pahz:positive cloud-to-ground lightning {meteo.} ["positive cloud-ground-?"]
pakh:stroke (" - ") [used like comma or semicolon in FSE]
  abu-pakh:up-stroke ("|") [used as a virgule ("/") in FSE or in mathematical fractions]
    ex=Orenal T'Luki terrupik wak-krus 1999|2000.:T'Luki studied the Earth period 1999/2000.
  dah-pakh:double-stroke (" – ", " -- ") [used like colon or dash in FSE]
  dahshaya-pakh:separation-stroke (" = ") [used like tilde or hyphen in FSE]
  ek'pakh:full-stroke (" — ", " --- ") [used instead of /dah-pakh/ in classical literature; also equiv. to ellipsis in FSE] 
paki-~:lost ~
palikau:(to) begin|commence
  palik:beginning {n.}
    ex=:[see /ozhika/]
pash:trap {n.}
  pash-tor:(to) trap
pasu:table {n.}
  patanafau:(to) design [inferred]
    patanafaya:design {n.} [inferred]
    sai-veltra-patanafausu:custome designer ["clothes-there-designer"]
pehkau:(to) stop
  pehkaya:stop {n.}
    dah-pehkaya:double-stop ("..") [used like exclamation mark in FSE; avoid]
    ek'pehkaya:full-stop (".")
    reh-pehkaya:triple-stop ("...") [used like triple exclamation mark in FSE; avoid]
      ex=Tuhsau Rihansular Ta'raf-Shal...:The Romulans are crossing the Neutral Zone!!!
    ulef-pehkaya:half-stop ("'") [affix separator, decimal point]
per-tor:(to) act|perform
  ex=Sehlat pi.:The /sehlat/ is small.
  ex=Sehlat pi hi le-matya suk.:The /sehlat/ is small but the /le-matya/ is big.
  ex=T'Luki pi.:T'Luki is small.
  pinu-zhit:diminutive {n.}
pi-~:(diminutive) [not to be confused with /pi'/; difference in pronunciation is the missing glottal stop]
  ex=pi-kushel:a little or small bird [can mean size, maturity and/or suggest a level of cuteness or affection]
  ex=pi-T'lar:Li'l T'lar [use with children only] 
  mapi-~:very little|small|tiny (diminutive) [see /ma/]
    ex=mapi-kushel:a very little or very small bird [can mean it is very young, a hatchling and/or suggest a level of extreme cuteness or affection]
pid(-~):high ~
  pid-kom:matriarch ["high-mother", from /ko-mekh/]
  pid-masu'es-kasik:hydric {adj.} ["high-moisture-plant-related"]
  pid-masu'es-kastik:hydrophyte ["high-moisture-plant"]
  pidsu:Lord ["high-person"]
    Opidsu:Lord ["honored-high-person"]
  lesek-pi'fek:culm {biol.}
pilsu:cook|food preparer
  opilsu:chef ["honored-person-preparing-food"]
  pil-tor:(to) prepare (food)
    ex=Pil-tor T'Luki yem-tukh.:T'Luki prepares food. ["Prepare T'Luki food."]
pla'~:back(-~) ~|retro(-~) ~
  pla'dor:dorsal [inferred]
    # pla'dor-ralek:[see /ralek/]
  pla'rak:reverse [inferred]
    # pla'rak-tselaya:[see /tselaya/]
pla-~:blue ~
plak:blood {obs.} [see also /plak-tau/]
plis:glide {n.} {aero.}
  plis-tor:(to) glide {aero.}
plo-~:quasi-~|somewhat like ~|sort of ~
  ex=Nam-tor du tab-ma va'ashiv po.:Why are you late again? ["Be you late again why."]
po'~:after ~ {chron.}
pohkau:(to) mind
polau:(to) jump [?]
  the'polau:(to) sauté
    ex=The'polau Opilsu nev-kur sazhlar.:The chef sautés the maroon-colored legume.
pontau:(to) breed|mate [inferred]
  pon farr:/Pon farr/ {anc.} ["breeding time"]
poprah:(to) receive
  ex=>I'poprah fasei setebihk t'ovsotuhl-ozhika.<:"Now receive from us this symbol of total logic." ["Now-receive this-here symbol of-total-logic."]
  proprahik:received [inferred] 
pral:wave {n.}
  dah-pral:double-wave (" ﹌ ") [used as "et al." is used in FSE]
    ex=Kital s'Sonok - T'Pral - Voluk ﹌:Written by Sonok, T'Pral, Voluk et al.
psethau:(to) dry (out)
  pseth-~:dry ~
    # pseth-tevun-yonuk:[see /tevun-yonuk/]
pstha:(to) search [irr. strong v.]
  ex=Pstha Sonok laptra na'sehlat.:Sonok searches the forest for the /sehlat/.
  ex=Pstha T'Luki muzh na'aluklar.:T'Luki searches the pond for fish.
  psthan:search {n.}
puk:fight {n.}
  puk-tor:(to) fight
puyek:washer (appliance)
  sov-puyek:air cleaner ["air-washer"]
  # puyan-achut:[see /achut/]
  ek'puyik:sterile ["full-?"]
  ex=Nam-tor wak ra.:What time is it? ["Be time what."]
  ragtau:(to) introduce [inferred]
  tereragelan:rendezvous {n.}
    tereragel-tor:(to) rendezvous
  ragel-tor:(to) meet
a'rak-raflehk:positive (battery) terminal {auto.} ["positive-?"]
    ex=ri bolau nash-veh:I do not need ["not need this-one"]
    ex=Ri tishau sa-veh ko-veh.:He does *not* like her. ["Not like male-one female-one."]
    ex=Tishau sa-veh ri ko-veh.:He does not like *her*. ["Like male-one not female-one."]
    ex=Tishau ri sa-veh ko-veh.:*He* does not like her. [Like not male-one female-one."]
    ex=Tishau Sonok T'Sau hi ri T'Pan.:Sonok likes T'Sau but not *T'Pan*. ["Likes Sonok T'Sau but (does) not (like) T'Pan."]
    ex=Tishau ri Sonok Stonn hi T'Pol.:*Sonok* does not like Stonn but he likes T'Pol. ["Likes not Sonok Stonn but (likes) T'Pol." (single verb is not repeated; orig. /hi/ before object is illogical)]
    ex=Tishau ri Sonok hi Stonn T'Pol.:*Sonok* does not like Stonn, but Stonn likes T'Pol. ["Likes not Sonok but (likes) Stonn T'Pol."]
    ex=Ri tishau Sonok heh Stonn T'Pol.:Sonok and Stonn do not like T'Pol. ["Not like Sonok and Stonn T'Pol."]
    ex=Ri tishau Sonok Stonn heh T'Pol.:Sonok does not like Stonn and T'Pol. ["Not like Sonok Stonn and T'Pol."]
    ex=Ri tishau il bolau Sonok uzh dunaplar.:Sonok does not like or need new books. ["Not like or need Sonok new books."]
    ex=Tishau hi ri bolau Sonok uzh dunaplar.:Sonok likes but does not need new books. ["Like but not need Sonok new books."]
    ex=Ri tishau mavau T'Pan ka'athaira.:T'Pan does not like to play the /ka'athyra/. [/ri/ precedes helper verb: "Not like play T'Pan /ka'athyra/."]
    ex=Ri tishau nash-veh du.:I do not like you.
    ex=Ri tishau sehlat nash-veh.:The /sehlat/ does not like me.
    ex=Ri tishau Sonok T'Pan.:Sonok does not like T'Pan.
    ex=Ri tishau sa-veh nash-veh il ko-veh.:He does not like me or her.
    ex=Tishau T'Pol Stonn hi ri Sonok.:T'Pol likes Stonn but not Sonok.
    ex=Ri tishau le-matya etek.:The le-matya does not like us.
    ex=Tishau Stonn heh Sonok nash-veh hi ri du.:Stonn and Sonok like me but not you.
    ex=Tishau savas hi ri kahm.:We like fruit but not meat.
    ex=Tishau T'Pol ri Stonn hi Sonok.:T'Pol does not like Stonn but likes Sonok.
    ex=Tishau du Stonn - T'Pol heh T'Pan hi ri Sonok.:You like Stonn, T'Pol and T'Pan but not Sonok.
    ex=Ri tishau Sonok Stonn - T'Pol il T'Pan.:Sonok does not like Stonn, T'Pol or T'Pan.
    ex=Tishau hi ri bolau T'Luki shur.:T'Luki likes but does not need soup.
    ex=Ri tishau mavau Stonn ryill.:Stonn does not like to play the /ryill/.
    ex=Tishau tu ri nash-veh.:You do not like me.
    ex=Ri tishau sehlat Spola.:The /sehlat/ does not like Spola.
    ex=Ri tishau T'Pan Sonok.:T'Pan does not like Sonok.
    ex=Ri tishau au nash-veh il du.:They do not like me or you.
    ex=Tishau Kirk McCoy hi ri Bishop.:Kirk likes McCoy but not Bishop.
    ex=Ri tishau le-matya sa-veh.:The le-matya does not like him.
    ex=Tishau nash-veh kahm hi ri savas.:I do not like meat but I like fruit.
    ex=Tishau T'Pring ri Spock hi Stonn.:T'Pring does not like Spock but she likes Stonn.
    ex=Tishau Sonok heh Stonn du hi ri nash-veh.:Sonok and Stonn like you but not me.
    ex=Tishau Sonok ko-veh - T'Luki eh T'Sai hi ri T'Pol.:Sonok likes her, T'Luki and T'Sai, but not T'Pol.
    ex=Ri tishau Vorik Stonn - T'Pring il T'San.:Vorik does not like Stonn, T'Pring or T'San.
    ex=Tishau hi ri bolau Sonak thas.:Sonok likes but does not need milk.
    ex=Ri tishau mavau Tuvok kal-toh.:Tuvok does not like to play /kal-toh/.
      Rihansu:Romulan ["no-?-person"]
    rik'~:without ~
rak:direction [inferred from /she'rak/ etc.]
  ralash-fam-~:silent ~ ["sound-without"]
  ralash-tanaf:music ["sound-art"]
ralek:fin {biol.}|dorsal {tech.} [partially inferred]
  pla'dor-ralek:dorsal fin {biol.}
  harr-ralek:caudal fin
    abuli-harr-ralek:vertical tail fin {aero.} ["vertical-?-fin"] 
  tersau-ralek:connecting dorsal {tech.} ["connect-fin"]
  # ralek-weil:[see /weil/]
ras(-~):heavy ~
  rasath:weight {n.}
rau-nol:shelter {n.}
  rau-tor:(to) shelter
  sov-razh:? ["air-?"]
    abulik sov-razh:air pocket ["? air-?"]
reh:three {enum.}
  ex=Ma ko-veh reh snauk.:She has three forks. ["Have female-one three fork."]
  ex=Nesh-tor ko-kan reh krus t'kap.:The girl slices three loafs of bread. ["Cut female-child three piece of-bread."]
  reh'rak:third (TGV)
    rehr-~:third ~
  rehik:three {adj.}
  rehkuh:three {card.}
resha:(to) rage
  reshan:rage {n.}
  reshen-~:angry ~
# ri(k'~):[see /rai/]
ro'fori:information {anc.} [originally a compound word]
rom(-~):good ~
  ohrom:excellent ["eightfold good"]
  rok:hope {n.}
    rok-tor:(to) hope
      ex=Rok-tor nash-veh tal-tor os-dunap.:I hope to find the old book. ["Hopes this-one to-find old-book."]
  ru'lut-masu:saliva ["mouth-water"]
  ru'lut-sai:napkin ["mouth-cloth"]
rubah:change {n.}
  ex=>Rubah -- gehnli tor-bosh t'ek'nam.<:"Change is the essential process of all existence." ["Change: Essential process of-all-existence."]
    mestaya-ek'rubah'es:contact metamorphism
  ek'rubah:metamorphosis ["full-change"]
    ovsot-ek'rubah:complete metamorphosis ["total-metamorphosis"]
    vohr-ek'rubah:gradual metamorphosis ["slow-metamorphosis"]
  # ha'gel-rubah-dvun:[see /ha'gel/]
  rubai:(to) change ["change-now"; see /i'/?]
  wakrubau:(to) evolve [inferred]
    wakrubaya:evolution ["time-change"]
  rubihalan:transition {n.} ["change-going"]
  rubilau:(to) adapt
    rubilau-vel:adapter ["adapt-thing"]
  rubitau:(to) modify [inferred]
    rub-zhit:adjective ["modifying-word"]
      rub-zhit-shidlar:adjectival forms
    rubitaya:alteration|modification {n.}
ruken:egress {n.} {aero.}
  ruk-tor:(to) egress {aero.}
s':from|out of|by ~ [as in the author of, etc.]
sa(-~):male|ex~|outward(-) ~|from out of|away from {comb.}
  sa-kan:boy ["male-child"]
    osa-mekh:father ["honored father"]
    ex=Sonok dah'rak sa-telsu t'nash-veh.:Sonok is my second husband. ["Sonok second husband of-this-one."]
  sa-veh:he ["male-one"; TGV]
      ex=Nem-tor ko-kan dunap t'sa-veh.:The girl takes his book. ["Take female-child book of-male-one."]
  sasu:man|male {n.} ["male-person"]
    osa(su):gentleman|sir ["honored man"]
  sayik:male {standal. adj.}
sahr-~:fast ~
    ex=sahran-sehlat:the running /sehlat/
  sahriv:storm {n.}
sahrafel:(to) trust
sai-vel:clothes ["?-thing"?]
  sai-veltra:custome ["clothes-there"; inferred]
sal:blow {n.} [wind]
  salur:(to) blow [wind; irr. strong v.]
    ex=Salur salan.:The wind blows.
    ex=Salur sahris salan.:The wind is blowing quickly. [adverbial form]
    ex=Salur sahr-salan.:The quick wind is blowing. [adjectival form]
    tevun-yonuk-planik falek-yetur-salan:monsoon ["season-backed heat-drive(n)-wind"]
sala-~:native ~
  salasharaya:pronunciation ["native-?"]
  salasu:native {n.} ["native-person"]
samek:cold {adj.}
  pid-samek:boreal ["high-cold"; inferred] 
    # pid-samek-ek'nosh:[see /ek'nosh/] 
    pid-samek-kastik:hekistotherm ["high-cold-plant-related"]
    pid-samek-laptra:boreal forest ["high-cold-tree-there"]
  sam-~:cold ~
sarlah:(to) come|arrive
  ex=Sarlah wuh le-matya..:There is a le-matya coming!
  ex=Vesht sarlah nemut | Kardassular || il sos'eh Dzhem-Hadaru || |.:The enemy (the Cardassians [or perhaps the Jem-Hadar]) arrived.
  ex=ki'sarlah:has come|arrived
  fasarlah:(to) come forward
  nusarlah:(to) come down, descend
    nusarlahn:come-down, down-coming, descent {n.}
  visarlah:(to) come in/into|enter [referring to beings; otherwise use /svi-tor/]
  abu-sarlah:(to) come up
sash-~:acidic ~
  sash-savas:/sash-savas/ (citrus-like fruit) ["acidic-fruit"]
sastorau:(to) make a breakthrough
saul:shout {n.}
  saul-tor:(to) shout
savensu:teacher ["teaching-person"; usually /osavensu/, see o~]
  osavensu:teacher ["honored teacher", as a token of respect]
  saven-tor:(to) teach
sazh:legume (gen. term)
seheik:pilgrims {borr.} ["declared ones"]
sehlat:/sehlat/ (bear-like, often domesticated, animal, with six-inch fangs)
  ex=nesh-kur sehlat:black (kind of) /sehlat/
sehtebihk:symbol {n.}
  ahm-sehtebihk:name symbol (" ° ") [used as italics are used with names and titles in FSE]
  heh-sehtebihk:and symbol (" • ") [used as an ampersand is used in FSE]
    ex=Vesht telv-tor nash-veh dunap °Dor • Gu-Vam°.:I read (in the past) the book "Honor & Duty".
  shiyu-sehtebihk:degree symbol (" ¯ ") [used as the degree symbol is used in FSE]
    ex=Nam-tor falek'es 45 ¯C.:The temperature is 45 °C.
  su'us-sehtebihk:number symbol ("ℵ") [used as "#" is used in FSE]
    ex=Bolau T'Krel ℵ2 kitau-fek.:T'Krel needs a #2 pencil.
  zek-sehtebihk:order symbol (" ☐ ") [used as an ordinal indicator like "nd", "rd", "st" and "th" are used with numbers in FSE, although normally limited to handwritten text]
    ex=Nam-tor Spock 1☐ heh Kirk 2☐.:Spock is 1st and Kirk is 2nd. 
sele-an t'li:/Sele-an-t'li/ (secondary level of adult discipline) {anc.}
seshan:pull {n.}
  sesh'gal:graviton ["pull-particle"; see /galu/]
    sesh'gal-zehlek:graviton beam
      wek-terauk sesh'gal-zehlek:phase-conjugate graviton beam
      sesh'gal-zehlek-sayek:graviton beam emitter
    sesh'gal-vunai:graviton field 
    sesh'gal-tihetilayek:graviton stabilizer
  nu-seshan:gravity ["down-pull"]
set:drop {n.}
  set-tor:(to) drop
    ex=Set-tor Rihansu suk'snauk fi'yar-pasu.:The Romulan drops the big fork on the green table.
  dan-pid-sfek:zenith (highest point) ["rotation-high-point"]
sha':one's own [personal possessive)]
shad (MGV)|shi'nahp (TGV):brain
shan:transfer {n.} [inferred from /shan-hali/ and /lashan/]
    abuli-sabuhashan heh fisolekaun: (ASF):Vertical takeoff and landing (VTOL) ["vertical-? and ?"]
  shaht:end {n.}
shahov:beach {n.}
  pid-shahov:backshore {geol.} ["high-beach"]
shati-~:auto-~|automatic ~
shau:(to) break
  shaukaush:passion(s) {anc.} ["break-wisdom"]
  dahshau:(to) separate ["two-break"; see /dah/]
    shailar:selves ["self-plural"]
      ek'shailar:themselves ["all-selves"]
  shaik:odd ["broken"]
  shal:zone {n.} ["broken thing"]
    ek'shal:-sphere ["all-zone"; as in "biosphere" etc.]
      falun-shetau-ek'shal:ionosphere ["charge-?-all-zone"]
      si-falek-ek'shal:thermosphere ["outer-heat-all-zone"]
      ha-ek'shal:ecosphere {biol.} ["life-all-zone"]
      igen-va-ek'shal:troposphere ["?-?-all-zone"]
      kov-ek'shal:lithosphere {geol.} ["rock-all-zone"]
      le-suma-ek'shal:cryosphere {meteo., ocean.} ["ice-all-zone"]
      masu-ek'shal:hydrosphere ["water-all-zone"]
      seshan-ek'shal:magnetosphere {meteo.} ["?-all-zone"]
      si-ek'shal:exosphere {clim.} ["exo-all-zone"]
      pid-sov-ek'shal:stratosphere ["high-air-all-zone"]
      sviti-sov-ek'shal:mesosphere ["?-air-all-zone"]
    a'rak-shal:positive area {meteo.} ["positive-zone"]
    elkhrul-shal:area ["whole-zone"]
  shaya:break {n.}
      ex=masuk-shayaf:a very big ego [insult]
    tal-shaya:/Tal-shaya/ (anc. technique once used for merciful execution) ["neck-breaking"; breaking another's neck with one hand; see /talu/]
  moguhshau:(to) scrap ["?-debris-verb"]
    guhsh(-tukh):debris {geol.}
      guhsh-khartau-torektra:waste management system (WMS) ["debris-?-system"]
      guhsh-skish:debris avalance {geol.} ["debris-?"]
      guhsh-yumaya:debris flow {geol.} ["debris-?"]
      ha-guhsh:detritus {biol.} ["life-debris"]
        # ha-guhsh-kov:[see /kov/]
  pleshau:(to) crush [inferred]
    plesh:crush {n.}
      plesh-gluder:crush depth {ocean.}
  svi-shau:(to) interrupt ["into-break"]
  vashau:(to) destroy ["infinite-break"; see /Va'Vuhnaya s'Va'Terishlar/]
    ex=Vashau salan svailar svi'ne-yartra.:The wind is destroying the flowers in the meadow.
  vravshau:(to) fail [reg. strong v.]
    ex=Vravshau sa-kan nisan.:The boy fails the test.
    ex=>Du vravshal srashiv t'Kolinahr.<:"*You* have not achieved Kolinahr." ["*You* failed achievement of-Kolinahr."; /du/ moved for emphasis]
she:scream {n.} ["raised voice"?]
  shei:(to) scream [irr. strong v.]
    ex=Shei le-matya.:The /le-matya/ screams.
  shen:rise {n.}|ascent [from CLGV /skæn/ and AGV /ξ'ành/]
    she'rak:east ["rise-direction" (from the rising suns)]
    she-tor:(to) rise|ascend|go up
  shoret:(to) call out|beckon
    kwi'shoret:(to) call out to/beckon from far away
      ex=:[see /hokni'es/ for ex.]
      kwi'shoren:calling-out to/beckoning from far away
sheh:6 {enum.}
  shehik:6 {adj.}
  shehkuh:6 {card.}
    sheh'rak:6th (TGV)
      shehr-~:6th ~
shetau:(to) become [from CLGV /shætau/ and AGV /ξ'àntá/]
  ex=:[see /ma/ for ex.]
shitau:(to) place|put
  ex=Shitau Sonok ras-dunap fi'suk'pasu.:Sonok puts the heavy book on the big table.
  shi'~:place of ~
    shi'dunap:library ["place-of-book"]
    shi'gluvaya:museum {arch.} ["place-of-display"]
    shi'oren:institute ["place-of-study"]
      ex=Shi'Oren t'Gen-Lis Vuhlkansu:Vulcan Language Institute ["place-of-study of-language Vulcan"]
    shi'kwai:wilderness ["place-of-wild"]
    shi'yon:volcano {colloq.} ["place-of-fire"; see /zul-kunel/]
  shid:form {n.}
    shidorau:(to) form
      shidoraya:forming {ger.}
        ex=Forming Diminutives & Augmentatives:Shidoraya t'Pinu-Zhitlar heh Hayat-Zhitlar
  shit~:(related to position)
        ex=fe-shitakik tor-zhitlar:prepositional verbs 
  ex=shiflar t'vel-zhit - tor-zhit:noun-verb pairs
  pashif:(to) match
shivaya:paralysis {med.}
  ul-shivaya:paresis {med.} ["partial-paralysis"]
  shur t'plomik:/plomeek/ soup
    ex=Tishau T'Luki kap k'shur t'plomik t'Sonok.:T'Luki likes bread with Sonok's /plomeek/ soup. 
si'~:outside (of) ~
si-:exo~|outer(-) ~|ecto~|extra(-)~|exterior(-) ~
snazh:plasma {tech.}
  snazh-gluvaya:plasma display ["plasma-display"]
    ne-torektra t'snazh-gluvaya:plasma display subsystem ["sub-system of-plasma-display"]
  snazh-mev:plasma conduit ["plasma-conduit"]
snauk:fork {n.}
ska'~:off (of) ~
skveon-~:east ~
  Skveon-Mershtijki:East Mershtak
pla'yumaya t'skaun-sa'haf-tuhllar:gastroesophageal reflux ["back-? of-?-?-?"]
skothon:survey {n.} {aero.}
  skothon-tor:(to) survey {aero.}
slah:fiber {biol.}
  slahtra:bundle {med.}
    pi'slahtra:fascicle {med.}
slor:sweet [inferred]
  slor-tukh:sugar {biol.} ["sweet-stuff"]
    pid-nosh t'slor-tukh svi'vazh:glycosuria {med.} ["high-? of-sweet-stuff inside-?"]
    kau-slor-tukh:pentose {biol.} ["five-sweet-stuff"]
    lapan-slor-tukh:xylose {biol.} ["?-sweet-stuff"]
    nen-slor-tukh:glucose {biol.} ["single-sweet-stuff"]
      ritsuri-nosh t'nen-slor-tukh svi'vazh:glucosuria {med.} ["irregular-? of-single-sweet-stuff inside-?"]
    khaf-slor-tukh:blood sugar {med.} ["blood-sweet-stuff"; inferred]
      pid-nosh t'khaf-slor-tukh:hyperglycemia {med.} ["high-condition of-blood-sweet-stuff"]
      nuk-nosh t'khaf-slor-tukh:hypoglycemia {med.} ["low-condition of-blood-sweet-stuff"]
    nalesh-slor-tukh:ketose {biol.} ["?-sweet-stuff"]
    potau-slor-tukh:sucrose {biol.} ["?-sweet-stuff"]
    savas-slor-tukh:fructose {biol.} ["fruit-sweet-stuff"]
    sheh-slor-tukh:hexose {biol.} ["six-sweet-stuff"]
    thas-slor-tukh:lactose {biol.} ["milk-sweet-stuff"]
smertau:? {v.}
  smertaufa:? {n.}
  smertausu:? {n.}
  sochya-bosh(-~):peaceful ~
stego'sohruhs (abu-math-pla'dorfa daino'sohr):stegosaurus {zool.} {borr.} ["stegosaurus (up-plate-?-?-dinosaur"]
solai:field {agr., fig.}
  solektra:ground {n.} ["field-all-there"]
sov:air {n.}
  visovau:(to) blow up|inflate
  sovtra-vohraun:aerobraking ["air-there-pausing"]
  sov-~:aerial {adj.}
    sov-morov:aerial combat ["air-?"]
  suk-sov-dan:cyclone (rotation area) {meteo.} ["big-air-rotation"]
  sovash-~:base|alkaline ["air-?", due to gasses being a part of bases]
spahk:claw {n.} {biol.}
  # spahk-mal-aushfa:crustacean {biol.} ["claw-leg-animal"; see /aushfa/]
spanakau:(to) govern {pol.}
  spanadvel-tor:(to) vote ["govern-choose"]
    spanadvelan:vote {n.} ["govern-choosing"]
    spanadvelsu:voter ["govern-choose-person"]
  spanakausu:governor {pol.} ["govern-person"]
    krusol-spanakausu:state governor {pol.} ["state-governor"]
  spanakhat:government {pol.} ["?-rule"]
          abu-tospanakelsu:senator {n.}
    shasol-ek'pumal-spanakhatektra:communism {pol.} ["?-all-?-government-?"]
    tasular-spanakhatektra:democracy {pol.} ["?-{pl.}-goverment-?"] 
      tasular-spanakau-zahelsu:democrat {pol.} ["?-{pl.}-govern-?-person"]
    spanakhat-fam:anarchy {pol.} ["government-without"]
      spanakhat-fam-dva:anarchism {pol.} ["government-without-?"]
        spanakhat-fam-dvasu:anarchist {pol.} ["government-without-?-person"]
    teruk-spanakhat:federal government {pol.} ["?-government"]
    odontra-spanakrus:treasury department ["?-govern-?"]
    shasol-spanakrus:state department ["?-govern-?"]
  spanasutra:party {n.} {pol.} ["govern-person-there"]
    Ek'ka-Abukhau-Spanasutra:Fascist Party ["all-same-rule-party"]
    Ek'sitra-Spanasutra:Green Party ["all-?-party"]
    Korsat-Spanasutra:Conservative Party ["?-party"]
    Shasol-Ek'pumal-Spanasutra:Communist Party ["?-all-?-party"]
    Shila-Dva-Spanasutra:Socialist Party ["?-?-party"]
    Spantabralesku-Spanasutra:Republican Party ["?-party"]
    Su'el-Spanasutra:Libertarian Party ["?-?-party"]
    Svitan-Spanasutra:Centrist Party ["?-party"]
    Tasular-Spanasutra:Democratic Party ["?-{pl.}-party"]
    Tikop-Spanasutra:Independent Party ["?-party"]
    Tu'el-Spanasutra:Liberal Party ["?-?-party"]
    Zup-Spanasutra:Labo(u)r Party ["work-party"]
    to'ankha-spanasutra:political party ["?-party"]
  spana-ornasu:chancellor {pol.}
spo'~:à la|after|in the manner/style of ~
sposhan:eruption [from CLGV /spohshan/ and AGV /sp'àξònh/]
spol:pump {n.}
  # khaf-spol:[see /khaf/]
  stariben:(to) talk
    ex=>Kup stariben (ha).<:"Can you speak?" ["Can speak (yes)."]
stau:(to) kill
  ex=Stau le-matya sehlat t'dular.:The /le-matya/ kills your {pl.} /sehlat/.
steh:7 {enum.}
  steh'rak:7th (TGV)
    stehr-~:7th ~
  stehik:7 {adj.}
  stehkuh:7 {card.}
stonn:horn|antler [from CLGV, derived from AGV /stònh/]
  ex=stor-shidlar:advanced forms
stron:escape {n.}
  stron-tor:(to) escape
stukh:(outer) space ["from-stuff"?; see /tukh/]
  ~su:~ person [e.g. (o)savensu -- (honored) teacher, "(honored) teaching person"]
  osu:gentleman|sir|lady|madam [generic term, "honored person"]
    osular:gentlemen|sirs|ladies|ladies & gentlemen ["honored people"]
su'us:number {n.}
  suk('~):big ~ [augmentative prefix]
    ex=Sonok suk.:Sonok is tall. ["Sonok is big."]
    suk-~:big (augmentative)
      ex=suk-sehlat:a big or large /sehlat/ [can mean size, maturity and/or suggest a level of some clumsiness or brutishness. It can occasionally be taken as an endearment, just as in the FSE construction "big ole /Sehlat/".]
      ex=suk-Spola:Big Spola [only use with children]
      eksuk-~:exceedingly big (augmentative; almost too big to be described) [see /ek/]
        ex=eksuk-sehlat:a gargantuan /sehlat/ [so big, that it is frightening or monstrous. This would conjur up the thought of a cinematic monster, like Godzilla or King Kong.]
      masuk-~:very big (indeed)|gigantic|huge (augmentative) [see /ma/]
        ex=masuk-sehlat:a very big or very large /sehlat/ [can mean it is old, full-grown and/or suggest a high level of clumsiness or brutishness]
    tsuk-~:common ~ ["of-big"?]
      Tsuk-Zukitan:Common Script (Vulcan writing script)
      tsuri(-~):common|regular|usual ~
        tsurkan'es:consistency {n.}
          tsurkan(-~|ik):consistent {adj.}
          ritsurkan'es:inconsistency [inferred] 
            ritsurkan(-~|ik):inconsistent {adj.} [inferred]
        ritsuri(-~):uncommon|irregular|unusual ~
sva'~:between ~
  ex=Le-matya na'svep heh sehlat na'yon.:The /le-matya/ is at the door and the /sehlat/ is at the fire.
  ex=Svep pi eh yon suk.:The door is small and the fire is big.
# svi'~:amid(st)|among(st)|in the midst of|inside (of) ~ [see /vi/]
swana:/swana/ (a rare and precious item) [from CLGV /swlana/ and AGV /s'w'lhánh/]
t'~:of|belonging to ~
t'forti:finally {anc.}
t'hai'la:(close[st]) friend|soulmate [often transcribed /t'hyla/]
  ex=>Goh kup-tar-tor nash-veh nash pa't'hai'la – t'katralar ki'ragel-tor svi'halovayalar - vesht nam-tor t'osa-veh dan-komihn t'ek.<:"Of my friend, I can only say this: of all the souls I have encountered in my travels, his was the most… human." ["Only able-to-say this-one this about-closest-friend – of-souls have-met in-travels - past to-be of-honored-male-one most-human of-all."; from Kirk's funeral speech for Spock]
t'san s'at:a process of eliminating emotions {anc.}
(ho-)ta'a:/taal/ (traditional Vulcan hand salute) [right hand raised vertically so that the palm is shown to the person greeted; angle between thumb and index finger, and middle and ring finger, to form a "V" each]
  Ta'raf-Shal:Neutral Zone
tab-ma:late {anc.}
  ex=>I'tah tehrai k'etwel.<:"He will not achieve his goal with us." ["Now-unobtainable goal with-us."]
takov(-~):pretty ~
tal:study {n.}
  ek'tal:science ["all-study"]
    ek'talsu:scientist ["all-study-person"]
  talal:find(ing)|discovery {n.} ["studied"]
    tal-tor:(to) find
      patal-tor:(to) detect
        patalan:detection {n.}
tam:dance {n.}
  tam-tor:(to) dance
tan:donation|gift|present {n.}
  tanek:dispenser {auto.} ["donation-all"]
    khaf-tansu:blood donor {med.}
  tan-tor:(to) give (MGV)
tanaf:art {n.}
nuk-yem-tanekik:oligotrophic {ocean.} ["low-meal-?"]
tar:say {n.}
  taran:saying {n.}
  tar-tor:(to) say
tash:control {n.}
  tashal (MGV)|tash-shal (TGV):control console
  tashek:control (device)|controller {n.} ["control-all"]
    nazh-tashek:gain control ["?-control-all-"]
    ral'es-tashek:volume control ["?-control"]
    threshyu-tashek:Throttle ["?-control-all"]
    wadi-kash-tashek:dermal sensor control ["?-?-control-all"]
    el'rupik thro-svep-tashek:manual hatch control ["?-? ?-door-control"]
  tash-katrom:control current ["control-?"]
  tash-math:control panel ["control-plate"]
    dakharau-tash-math:helm control panel ["?-control-plate"]
    kharau-tash-math:navigation control panel ["?-control-plate"]
    pohshau-tash-math:fire control panel ["?-control-plate"]
  tash-nelka:control pedestal ["control-?"]
  tash-noshtra-tal:eugenics ["control-characteristic-study"]
    tash-noshtra-talsu:eugenicist ["control-characteristic-study-person"]
  tash-dvunek:coluntary muscle ["control-?"]
  tash-svitan:bridge|command center {naut.} ["control-?"]
    thro-gol'dvunek t'tash-svitan:bridge access relay ["?-? of-command-?"]
    kvath-tash-svitan:emergency bridge ["?-command-?"]
    nel-tash-svitan:main bridge ["?-command-?"]
  tash-tol:regulator gene
  tash-tor:(to) control
  ek'nosh-tash:climate control {meteo.} ["all-condition-control"]
  fik-nu-tash:top-down control {ocean.} ["?-down-control"]
  lanet-abu-tash:bottom-up control {ocean.} ["?-up-control"] 
  ha-tash:biological control
  # malat-tash:natural control [see /malat/]
  dvunek-tash-svitan:cerebellum {med.} ["?-control-?"]
  nahp-tash-svitan:cerebrum ["thought-control-?"]
    si-tin t'nahp-tash-svitan:cerebral cortex ["outer-layer of-thought-control-?"]
  folau-tash-kwitek:Reaction-control thruster ["?-control-?"]
  folau-tash-torektra (FTT):reaction-control system (RCS) {tech.} ["?-control-system"]
  kvath-tash-svitan (KTS):auxiliary control (room) {tech.} ["?-control-?"]
  vlaik kwitau-tash-torektra (VKTT):lateral impulse control system ["? ?-control-system"]
  zakar-tash:damage control ["damage-control"]
  vihish-tash-torektra:pressure control system ["pressure-control-system"]
    ek'meklar t'vihish-tash-torektra:pressure control system safeties ["all-? of-pressure-control-system"]
  tashuhl-mazhiv-kov:arkose {geol.}
  tashuhnu-tukh:rhyolite {geol.}
  tashuh-~|tashuhk:felsic {geol.}
tau:fever {anc.}
  plak-tau:/plak-tau/ {anc.} ["blood-fever", also transcribed /plak tow/; metabolic chemical imbalance due to the Vulcan mating cycle, terminal if untreated; see /pon farr/]
  tau-kath:"fever healing" ["fever-?"]
taul-tulek:dive tank {ocean.} ["?-?"]
tav:rate {n.}
  ha'gel-haulan-tavat:albedo ["light-?-?"]
  tav-tor:(to) rate
tchas:warp {n.}
  tchas-apalikau-tikap t'Skoht:Scott warp startup method ["warp-?-? of-Scott"]
  tchas-klai:warp factor ["warp-?"]
  tchas-mev:warp conduit ["warp-conduit"]
  tchas-mishu:warp engine ["warp-?"]
    tchas-mishu-leshek:warp engine nacelle ["warp-?-?"]
  feretai t'tchas-nosh-nisaklar:warp diagnostic assembly (WDA) ["? of-warp-condition-?"]
  tchas-snazh:warp plasma ["warp-?"; inferred]
    nen-yemek t'tchas-snazh:primary warp plasma feed (PWPF) ["primary-? of-warp-?"]
    ne-patorayek t'tchas-snazh:warp plasma subprocessor ["sub-? of-warp-?"]
    tchas-snazh-kapol:warp plasma filter ["warp-?-?"]
    tchas-snazh-mev:warp plasma conduit (WPC) ["warp-?-conduit"]
    tchas-snazh-tihetilayek:warp plasma stabilizer ["warp-?-?"]
  tchas-threshan:warp speed ["warp-speed"]
  tchas-tviyan:warp core ["warp-?"]
    viskulan-tertitayek t'tchas-tviyan:warp core matrix compositor (WCMC) ["?-? of-warp-?"]
    tchas-tviyan-shaya:warp core breach ["warp-?-break"]
  tchas-vunai:warp field ["warp-?"]
    ferek-kebi t'tchas-vunai:warp field generator unit ["?-? of-warp-?"]
    tchas-vunai-ferek:warp field generator (WFG) ["warp-?-?"]
  tchas-yeturek:warp drive
    tchas-yeturek t'Alkubiyer:Alcubierre warp drive
    tchas-yeturek t'Kakruhn:Cochrane warp drive
    tchas-yeturek t'dah-da-sfek:coaxial warp drive ["warp-drive of-two-?-point"]
    fe-palikau-zehlanayek t'tchas-yeturek:warp drive prestart sequencer (WDPS) ["?-start-? of-warp-drive"]
    mesakh-tchas-yeturek (MTY):transwarp drive ["trans-warp-?"]
  mesakh-tchas:transwarp ["trans-warp"]
    mesakh-tchas-tvur:transwarp corridor ["trans-war-?"]
te'koshif:architecture {anc.} [originally a compound word]
teh:100 {enum., card.}
  teh'rak:100th (TGV)
    tehr-~:100th ~
    tehrai:goal {n.}
  tehik:100 {adj.}
  teh kau-leh:150 {enum., card.}
    teh kau-leh'rak:150th (TGV)
      teh kau-lehr-~:150th ~
    teh kau-lehik:150 {adj.}
  dah-teh:200 {enum., card.}
    dah-teh'rak:200th (TGV)
      dah-tehr-~:200th ~
    dah-tehik:200 {adj.}
  leh-teh:1000 {enum., card.}
    leh-tehik:1000 {adj.}
    leh-teh kau-teh:1500 {enum., card.}
      leh-teh kau-teh'rak:1500th (TGV)
        leh-teh kau-tehr-~:1500th ~
      leh-teh kau-tehik:1500 {adj.}
    dah-leh-teh:2000 {enum., card.}
      dah-leh-tehik:2000 {adj.}
tehn'~:against ~|anti-~
Tela'at:elder (title of respect for advanced age /Kolinahru/)
telv:reading {n.}
  telv-tor:(to) read
temok:wall {n.}
ten-mal:early ["?-leg"]
terek:affix {n.}
  terek-tor:(to) affix
teresh-kah:/Teresh-kah/ (a type of bird)
  ex=Teresh-kah suk.:The /teresh-kah/ bird is big.
  ex=wan-kur teresh-kah:white /teresh-kah/ bird
tersau:(to) connect
  tersa'es:connectivity ["connect-noun"]
    fau-ku-tersaya:saddle connection ["?-?-connection"]
    mes-tersaya:cross connection ["cross-connection"]
    pla-yumau-tersaya:backflow connection ["?-?-connection"]
    tersayek:connector {aero.}
      nisau-tersayek t'hal-tukh-spol:fuel pump test connector {auto.} ["?-connector of-?-stuff-pump"]
      raf-tersayek:electrical connector {aero.} ["?-connector"] 
    yemtersau-tersayalar:umbilical connections {aero.} ["?-connections"]
  satersau:(to) disconnect
  tersau-fek:connecting rod {auto.} ["connect-?"]
    terti-~:compound ~
terra:Terra (Earth) 
  Terrasu:Terran (Earthling)|Human {n.} 
tevan:fall|descent {n.}
  tevi-~:dead ~
  tevul:crash {n.} ["fallen"]
  tevun:year [from leaves falling every autumn?]
    tevunik:perennial {adj.} ["yearly"]
    wuh-tevunik:annual {adj.} ["one-yearly"]
    dah-tevunik:biennial {adj.} ["two-yearly"]
    tevun-yonuk:season ["year(ly)-burning"; see /yon/]
      pseth-tevun-yonuk:dry season [see /psethau/]
      to'ovau-tevun-yonuk:growing season [see /to'ovau/]
    teh-tevun:century ["hundred-year"]
    leh-teh-tevun:millennium ["thousand-year"]
  tev-tor:(to) fall|descend
    ex=Tev-tor wu-lipau fi'lan-tol.:The long knife falls on the floor.
    mestev-tor:(to) fall across
      mestevan:across-fall, falling-across
    nutev-tor:(to) fall down [see /nu/]
      ex=Nutev-tor Sonok kaiden.:Sonok falls down the stairs. ["Fall-down Sonok stairs."; *not*: /Tev-tor Sonok nu'kaiden./]
      nutevan:downfall, falling-down {n.}
      ex=tevyan-morlar:the falling leaves
thas:milk {n.}
  thasau:(to) lactate
    thasaya:lactation ["milking"]
      pehk-thasaya:ablactation ["stop-milking"]
  thask:breast {TGV} {LGV} [cognate with /thasek/ "milk-all"]
    thasek-gonaf:nipple [from {anc.} /thask-gonaf/ "breast-button"]
    thask-dah'haf:bra {TGV} {LGV} ["breast-two-gap"]
    thask-rasathra:breast cancer {TGV} ["breast-?"]
    thask-vishi-vel:breast implant {TGV} ["breast-into-place-thing"]
    thask-yem-tor:(to) breastfeed {TGV} ["breast-meal-to-do"]
    thak:breast {MGV}
      thak-dahf:bra {MGV} ["breast-?"]
      thak-rasathra:breast cancer {MGV} ["breast-?"]
      thak-vishi-vel:breast cancer {MGV} ["breast-into-place-thing"]
      thak-yem-tor:(to) breastfeed {TGV} ["breast-meal-to-do"]
  thasnemek:milking machine
    thasnem-tor:(to) milk (by machine) ["milk-take-to-do"]
  sfith-thas:sour milk ["?-milk"]
  thas-aluk:milk fish ["milk-fish"]
  thas-aushfa:mammal ["milk-animal"]
    deltuh'therihdiuhm (reh-tarkiv-zud'veh ten-malik thas-aushfa):deltatheridium {paleo.} {borr.}
    fe-thas-aushfa:protomammal {paleo.}
    lai'keinaps (wolf-limukalik fu-thas-aushfa):lycaenops {paleo.} {borr.}
    thrihnahksuh'dan (ten-malik fu-thas-aushfa):thrinaxodon {paleo.} {borr.}
    sa'haf-thas-aushfa:marsupial {n.} ["pouch-mammal"]
      gad-keshtanik sa'haf-thas-aushfa:alphadon {paleo.}
    bosh-patam'veh (thas-aushfa-orfikk):hadrocodium {paleo.}
  thas-mev:lactoferous duct {anat.}
  thas-pi'nafek:mammary gland {anat.} ["milk-small-organ"; see /pi'nafek/]
  thas-skaun-zalu:lactase {biol.}
  thas-spol:breast pump ["milk-pump"]
  thas-tehsik:casein {biol.}
  thas-tor:(to) milk (manually) ["milk-to-do"]
  thas-vedik-ravot:milkweed bug {zool.} ["milk-?-bug"]
    thanai:(to) adopt [irr. strong v.]
      ex=Thanai Sonok heh T'Luki sa-kan heh ko-kan.:Sonok and T'Luki are adopting a boy and a girl.
thal-tukh:detritus {anorg.}
Theisuhs|Theizuhs:Thasus {borr. from FSE}
thel-~:fat ~
  thel'an-~:obese ~
  vunai-khlop-thon:field geometry {tech.} ["field-?-measurement"]
  thonalik:measured {adj.}
  sov-dukal-vel na'salan-thonan:rawinsonde ["air-?-thing for-wind-measuring"]
  thonan-fek:ruler {med.} ["measuring-?"]
    glu-masutra-thonaya:bathymetry ["deep-?-measuring"]
  thonek:meter (device)
    thonek t'masu-muhs-tuhl:psychrometer ["meter of-water-vapor-contain"]
    thonek t'wan-tin-lanet:ceilometer {meteo.} ["meter of-white-layer-bottom"; device for determining the height of a cloud base]
    thonek t'sov-masu-theklar:disdrometer ["meter of-air-water-?"]
    bal-thonek:calipers {tech.} ["?-meter"]
      numo-bal-thonek:microcaliper ["microscopic-?-meter"]
      seshu-bal-thonek:gravitic calipers ["?-?-meter"]
    falek-thonek:thermometer {tech.} ["heat-meter"]
      falek'es-thonek:thermometer {meteo.} ["temperature-meter"]
        mashuk-falek'es-thonek:bucket thermometer ["?-temperature-meter"]
    galat-thonek:inclinometer ["?-meter"]
    gluder-thonek:depth finder ["depth-meter"]
    halek-dan-thonek:cyclometer ["wheel-rotation-meter"]
    ihn-thonek:densitometer ["?-meter"]
    kahat-thonek t'kas-yar-kurek:fluorometer ["?-meter of-plant-green-coloring"]
    khaf-spolik raf-bes-thonek:electrocardiograph ["heart ?-?-meter"]
    khaf-vihish-thonek:sphygmomanometer ["blood-pressure-meter"]
    kur-thonek:colorimeter ["color-meter"]
      kurtra-thonek:spectrometer ["color-there-meter"]
    masu-thonek:hydrometer ["water-meter"]
      asal-masu-thonek:drosometer ["morning-water-meter"]
      sov-masu-thonek:hygrometer ["air-water-meter"]
    na-sovau-thonek:evaporimeter ["?-?-meter"]
    pidek-thonek:altimeter ["height-meter"]
    dvunek-toranik raf-bes-thonek:electromyograph ["?-busy ?-?-meter"]
    salan-thonek:anemometer ["wind-meter"]
    seshan-thonek:magnetometer ["?-meter"]
      nu-seshan-thonek:gravimeter ["small-?-meter"]
    shad-pralik raf-bes-thonek:electroencephalograph ["?-? ?-?-meter"]
    smish-thonek:dynamometer ["?-meter"]
    solektra-hutaya-thonek:seismometer ["?-?-meter"]
    sov-ne'hish-thonek:barometer {tech.} ["air-?-meter"]
    sov-vihish-thonek:barometer {ocean.} ["air-pressure-meter"]
      dvunek-elekik sov-vihish-thonek:aneroid barometer {meteo.} ["?-? air-pressure-meter"]
    vath-yut-thonek:interferometer ["?-way-meter"]
    vul-thonek:climometer ["?-meter"]
    yumau-thonek:flowmeter {geo.}|flow monitor {tech.} ["?-meter"]
    zhu-thonek:audiometer ["hearing-meter"]
  thon-tor:(to) measure ["measure-to-do"]
  ex=:[see /nem-tor/ for ex.]
    abuli-threshan:vertical speed {aero.} ["vertical-?"]
      abuli-threshan-yal:vertical speed indicator {aero.} ["vertical-?-?"]
  abuthresha:(to) throttle up {aero.} ["up-?"]
    abuthreshan:throttle-up {n.} {aero.}
thro:access {n.}
  throks:(to) give (access) (TGV)
  thro-tor:(to) access
thurai(-~):next ~
  abuli-tihetilayek:vertical stabilizer {aero.} ["vertical-?"]
tin:layer|stratum {med., geol.}
  abru-masu-tin t'suk'muzh:epilimnion ["above-water-layer of-lake"]
  # to'ovau-tin t'lap-vukhut:[see /to'ovau/]
  wan-tin:cloud layer ["white-layer"]
    wan-tin-lanet:ceiling|cloud base {meteo.} ["white-layer-bottom"]
      thonalik wan-tin-lanet:measured ceiling {meteo.} ["measured white-layer-bottom"]
tishau:(to) like [reg. strong v.]
  ex=Tishau sa-kan ko-kan,:The boy likes the girl.
  ex=Tishau T'Luki yon-kur heh zhar-kur svailar hi ri nev-kur.:T'Luki likes red and orange flowers but not maroon ones.
  tishaya:like|liking {n.}
  ritishau:(to) dislike
    ex=Ritishau Sonok bar-kas svi'shur t'plomik t'T'Luki.:Sonok dislikes the spice in T'Luki’s /plomeek/ soup.
tivad:grade {n.} [class]
  ex=Kan t'sa-veh svi'shehr-tivad.:His child is in the 6th grade. ["Child of-male-one in-6th-grade."]
Tlingansu:Klingon {n.}
  to'ankhasu:politician ["political-person"]
  to'ankhatra:politics ["political-there"]
  to'ankha-stau:assassinate {pol.} ["political-kill"]
    to'ankha-stausu:assassin {pol.} ["political-killer"]
      to'ankha-staya:assassination {pol.} ["political-killing"]
to'ovau:(to) grow
  # to'ovau-tevun-yonuk:[see /tevun-yonuk/]
  to'ovau-tin t'lap-vukhut:cambium {bot.} ["grow-layer of-tree-body"]
    nala-to'ovaya:cell growth
tor:(to) do|make [from CLGV /thor/ and AGV /dhórh/]
  ~-tor:(weak verb form)
  tor-bosh:process {n.}
  tor-zhit:verb ["to-do-word"]
  # tor-yehat:possible ["make-true"; see /yeht/]
  torah:(to) act (on sth.) [produce an effect]
      ex=Au toranik svi'solai.:They are busy|occupied in the field.
      ex=Du toranik.:You are busy|occupied.
  torektra:system ["do-all-there"]
  toru-zhit:imperative ["make-word"]
  dotor:(to) plan
    ex=Ri dotor nash-veh hal-tor na'Shi'Kahr.:I am not planning to go to Shi'Kahr. ["Not plan this-one to-go to-Shi'Kahr"]
tomasu:relative {n.}
  ex=Rok-tor etek tra'tal-tor sehlatlar.:We hope to find sehlats there. ["Hope we there-find sehlats."]
  ex=Aitlu tu fa-gad tra'hal-tor ha.:Do you want to go there tomorrow? ["Want you tomorrow there-go?"]
  trasha:(to) leave
tral:surge {n.} {aero.}
  tral-tor:(to) surge
trau(-~):honest ~
  ritrau(-~):dishonest ~
    ex=Ferengi ritrau hi Vuhlkansu trau.:A Ferengi is dishonest but a Vulcan is honest.
travilau:(to) compile
  travek:party (group)
  ex=treit t'kushel:flock of birds ["flock of-bird"]
trel:slip {n.} {aero.}
  trel-tor:(to) slip {aero.}
tsaebb-~:west ~ {obs.}
  Tsaebb-Mershtijkk:West Mershtak (Vulcan language)
tselau:(to) mutate
  tselau-palikauk:mutagenic {adj.} ["mutate-commencing"]
  tselau-tav:mutation rate
    pla'rak-tselaya:reverse mutation ["?-?-mutation"]
  tsel-~:mutant ~ {adj.}
    tselik:mutant {adj.}
tu'ash:(to) open
  ex=Tu'ash sa-kan gahv-kur svep.:The boy opens the purple door.
tuhlau:(to) contain [inferred]
  tuhlau-nelka t'dah-pim-khushlar (TNDPKh):dilithium containment pedestal ["contain-? of-two-?-?"]
  tuhlau-torektra:containment system ["contain-system"]
    tuhlau-torektra t'tukh-tehn-tukh (TTTT):matter/antimatter containment system ["contain-system of-?-?-?"]
  # tuhlau-vunai:[see /vunai/]
  kef-tuhlau-vis:emergency containment grid ["?-contain-web"]
  tuhlek:container {tech.}|tank {ocean.}
    tuhlek t'vimashal-masu-tukh:liquid hydrogen tank ["tank of-?-water-?"]
    tuhlek t'vimashal-sov-tukh:liquid nitrogen tank ["tank of-?-air-?"]
    tuhlek t'vimashal-esh-tukh:liquid oxygen tank ["tank of-?-oxygen"]
    esh-tukh-tuhlek:oxygen tank {ocean.} ["breathe-stuff-tank"; see /esh-tukh/]
    set-tuhlek:drop tank ["?-tank"]
    sa'ovau-tuhlek:expansion tank ["?-tank"]
    seshan-korsau-tuhlek:magnetic storage bottle ["?-?-container"]
tuhsau:(to) cross
tuhsk:comment {n.}
tukh:material|substance|stuff|element {chem.}
  bal-tukh:erbium {chem.} ["?-?"]
  bali-tukh:samarium {chem.} ["thick-?"]
  masu-tukh:hydrogen {chem.} ["water-stuff"]
  (nen-)nala-tukh:cytoplasm {biol.} ["(?-)cell-stuff"]
  nen-kas-tukh:cellulose ["?-plant-stuff"]
  ras-tukh:lead {chem.} ["heavy-stuff"]
  skamau-tukh:attractant {biol.} ["?-?-stuff"]
  sov-tukh:nitrogen ["air-?"]
    reh-masuyu t'sov-tukh:ammonia [NH_3; "three-hydrogen (out-)of-(one-)nitrogen"]
  tehn-ausham-tukh:antivenin {biol.} ["?-?-stuff"]
  tehn-hasam-tukh:antitoxin {biol.} ["?-?-stuff"]
  tehn-folau-tukh:allergen {biol.} ["?-?-stuff"]
  tehn-vihk-tukh:anticoagulin {biol.} ["?-?-stuff"]
  toltra-tukh:chromatin {biol.} ["?-stuff"]
  tvi-tukh:endoplasm {biol.} ["?-stuff"]
  wu-dau-tukh:auxin {biol.} ["?-?-stuff"]
tum:(to) tally {v.}|sum {n.}
  tum-vel:computer ["tally(ing)-thing"]
tunuh:tuna {zool.} {borr.}
  suk-bezhun-tunuh:bigeye tuna ('ahi po'onui, mebachi)
tvah:meaning {n.}
tvesh-~:original ~
tvi-~:endo~|inner-~|inter~ {adj.}
  tvik:inside (adj. standalone)
tvur:corridor [inferred from /mesakh-tchas-tvur/]
u'~:as ~
u'rak(-~|ik):negative [inferred]
  # u'rak-falun:negative charge
  # u'rak-ayaunik nuk-vihish-tauf:[see /nuk-vihish-tauf/]
  uf mau:how much
    ex=Nam-tor falek uf mau.:How hot is it? ["Is heat how much."]
  uf wehk:how many
ugel-~:bright ~
ukraluk:reptile {n.} [from CLGV, derived from AGV /úhrállu/, meaning "one who crawls"]
  saino'dant (dag-zud'veh thas-aushfa-ukraluk):cynodont {paleo.} {borr.}
  sainag'nathuths (dag-ahs'veh thas-aushfa-ukraluk):cynognathus {paleo.} {borr.}
  teno'spandihluhs (thalv-pla'dorfa thas-aushfa-ukraluk):ctenospondylus {paleo.} {borr.}
  pluh'seriuhs (thas-aushfa-ukraluk):placerias {paleo.} {borr.}  
    # ul-shivaya:[see /shivaya/]
  ulidar:scar|cicatrix {med.}
    tersau-ulidar:hilum {biol.} ["?-scar"]
    shahov-pid-ulidar:beach crest {geo.} ["?-high-scar"]
    zehl-ulidar:striation {geol.} ["line-scar"]
uralau:(to) sing
urozh:crop(s) {n.} {anc.}
  Va'Vuhnaya s'Va'Terishlar (VVVT):Infinitite Diversity in Infinite Combinations (IDIC) {phil.}
vah:as [inferred]
vak-zehl:x-ray {n.} {aero.}
  vak-zehl-tor:(to) x-ray {aero.}
vakav(-~):frequent ~
  rivak:course {n.} ["infrequently (changing)"?]
  vakav'es:frequency [inferred]
    mair-nuk-vakav'es (MNV):extremely low frequency (ELF)
    ohm-nuk-vakav'es (ONV):ultra low frequency (ULF) {tech.}
    tchu-nuk-vakav'es (TNV):very low frequency (VLF) {tech.}
    mair-pid-vakav'es (MPV):extremely high frequency (EHF)
    ohm-pid-vakav'es (OPV):ultra high frequency (UHF) {tech.}
vakh:bold {adj.}
vahl:(to) grant
vanu-~:ceremonial ~
  Vanu-Zukitan:Ceremonial Script (Vulcan writing script)
vazgau:(to) steal
  ex=Vazgau ridorli Tellarsu ek'zerlar t'etek s'pi'kitau-skaf.:The dishonorable Terran steals jewels of us from the small desk. ["Steal dishonorable Terran jewels of-we from small desk."]
ved-~:quite ~
  vel-zhit:noun ["thing-word"]
  veli-~:easy|simple ~
    ex=veli-zhitlar:simple words
  ein-vel:something ["some-thing"]
ven-dol-tar:philosophy {anc.}
vesht ~:(past form)
  ex=vesht gla-tor au:they saw ["past see they"]
  ex=tishal du:you liked
  ex=Vesht gla-tor du dunap ha.:Did you see the book? ["Saw you book yes."]
  ex=Vesht gla-tor etek ha'gel.:We saw the light. ["Past see we light."]
  ex=Vesht nem-tor T'Luki yon-kur dunap.:T'Luki took the yellow book.
  ex=Vesht yokul Sonok yarmok.:Sonok ate the salad.
  ex=Vesht stron-tor kushel s'kraisek.:The bird escaped from the cage.
  ex=Vesht nashiv-tor le-matyalar kuht t'sehlat t'au.:The /le-matya/ attacked their herd of /sehlats/.
  ex=Vesht tal-tor ko-kan tal-muv heh klachek fi'pasu.:The girl found the key and the lock on the table.
  ex=Vesht fas-tor sa-kan khi-gad-yem heh leipau kap.:The boy cooked the lunch and baked the bread.
  ex=Vesht hash-tor T'Luki shan-hali vi'stukh.:T'Luki flew the shuttle into outer space. 
  ex=Vesht gla-tor au wuh'rak yel t'khru ha.:Did they see the first star of the evening? ["Saw they first star of-evening yes."]
  vesh-wis:past tense
    vesh-wis-shidlar:past-tense forms
  ex=vi nam-tor etek:who we are
  ex=Ma malanu t'sa-veh vi.:Who has his pants?
  svi'~:amid(st)|among(st)|in the midst of|inside (of) ~ ["from-into"]
  vikatau:(to) bring in
    vikataya:bring-in|bringing-in {n.}
vihish:pressure {n.} [inferred]
  nuk-pid-shal t'vihish:pressure couplet {meteo.} ["lower-high-zone of-pressure"]
  muhs-vihish:vapor pressure {meteo.} ["vapor-pressure"]
    vi-mashauk muhs-vihish:saturation vapor pressure {meteo.} ["?-? vapor-pressure"]
  nuk-vihish:low pressure {n.} {meteo.}
    pi-shal t'nuk-vihish:mesolow {meteo.} ["small-zone of-low-pressure"]
    nuk-vihish-shal:low (pressure area)|cyclone (low pressure area) {n.} {meteo.} ["low-pressure-zone"]
      ikapik nuk-vihish-shal:closed low {meteo.} ["? low-pressure-zone"]
      faluyik nuk-vihish-shal:thermal low {meteo.} ["? low-pressure-zone"]
      falu-shalik nuk-vihish-shal:tropical cyclone {meteo.} ["?-? low-pressure-zone"]
        nefalu-shalik nuk-vihish-shal:subtropical cyclone {meteo.} ["?-? low-pressure-zone"]
          nefalu-shalik pi'nuk-vihish-shal:subtropical depression {meteo.} ["?-? small-low-pressure-zone"]
      pi'nuk-vihish-shal:depression {meteo.} ["small-low-pressure-zone"]
        falu-shalik pi'nuk-vihish-shal:tropical depression {meteo.} ["?-? small-low-pressure-zone"]
    fe-pradukik nuk-vihish-tauf:pre-frontal trough {meteo.}
    nuk-vihish-tauf:(low-pressure) trough {meteo.} ["low-pressure-?"]
      pen-pralik nuk-vihish-tauf:shortwave trough {meteo.} ["?-? low-pressure-?"]
      wu-pralik nuk-vihish-tauf:longwave trough {meteo.} ["?-? low-pressure-?"]
      a'rak-ayaunik nuk-vihish-tauf:Positive-tilt trough {meteo.} ["positive-tilted low-pressure-?"]
      u'rak-ayaunik nuk-vihish-tauf:Negative-tilt trough {meteo.} ["negative-tilted low-pressure-?"]
    nuk-vihish-svitistoraya:cyclogenesis {meteo.} ["low-pressure-?"]
vikau:(to) warn
  vikaya:warning {n.} [inferred]
    vikayek:alarm (device) {n.} {aero.}
  vikwam:alert {n.}
  vikau-torektra:warning system ["warn-system"]
  vinik:mature {adj.}
    wehk-tevun-vinik:multivoltine {adj.; biol.} ["many-year-mature"]
    wuh-tevun-vinik:univoltine {adj.} ["one-year-mature"]
  vin-~:mature ~
    vin-tor:(to) mature ["maturity-to-do"]
visak'a:legacy {anc.}
visolektrau:(to) bury)
vit-~:static ~
vis:net {tech.}|web {biol.}
  nen-shar-vis:primary security net ["?-shar-?"]
  vistra:network [inferred]
    faik-vistra (FV):data network
      gla-faik-vistra (GFV):Optical Data Network (ODN)
      faik-vistra t'ha'gel-slah-elakh (FVHSE):fiber-optic data network ["data-network of-fiber-optic-cable"]
      kvath-faik-vistra (KFV):backup data network
vlut:howl {n.}
  vlur:(to) howl [irr. strong v.]
    ex=Vlur sehlat.:The /sehlat/ howls.
vo'ekti:? {anc.} {borr.}
vohr-~:slow ~
  vohrau:(to) pause [inferred]
    vohraya:pause [inferred]
      nosh-vohraya:diapause {biol.} ["condition-pause"; see /nosh/]
vokau:(to) remember [also in ST:ENT "The Forge"]
  vokau-patam:memory head {tech.} ["remember-?"]
  vokau-tviyan:memory core {tech.} ["remember-?"]
  vokau-val:memory chip ["remember-?"]
    ka-zehlik vokau-val (KZVV):isolinear (memory) chip ["iso-linear remember-?-?"]
      ka-zehlik vokau-val-nisanek:isolinear chip tester ["iso-linear remember-?-?"]
      ka-zehlik vit-vokau-tviyan:isolinear static memory core ["iso-linear ?-remember-?"]
  vokaya:memory {med.} {tech.}
    tum-vel-vokaya:computer memory ["tally-thing-memory"]
Vuhlkansu:Vulcan {adj., n.} [/wuh(l)-kansu/ "a-child-person"?; see /kahs-wan/]
vuhnaya:diversity [inferred; see /va'/]
vukhut(-~):body|corporeal ~
  ri-vukhut-~:non-corporeal ~
    ri-vukhut-hasular:non-corporeal beings
vul:incline {n.} {aero.}
  vul-tor:(to) incline {aero.}
vun(-~):have to|must
  ex=Vun hal-tor sa-veh tal-tor paki-sehlat.:He must go find the lost sehlat. ["Must go he to-find lost-sehlat."]
  ex=Vun-vashau dah yel-hali skyem-kushel tlingansu.:The two starships have to destroy the Klingon bird-of-prey. ["Must-destroy two starship bird-of-prey Klingon."]
vunai:field {n.} {tech.}
  # vunai-ferek:[see /ferek/]
  kel-ket'es-vunai (KKV):structural integrity field (SIF) ["?-?-field"]
  fosh-vunai t'kur-raf-tepul (FVKRT):chromoelectric force field ["?-field of-color-?-?"]
    nen-sakwitayek t'fosh-vunai (NSFV):primary force field deflector ["?-? of-?-field"]
  seshan-vunai:magnetic field ["?-field"]
    karik'es t'seshan-vunai:magnetic field intensity ["? of-?-field"]
    solektra-seshan-vunai:geomagnetic field {geo.} ["?-?-field"]
  seshlanu-vunai-kesautik:geotactic {adj.} {ocean.} ["?-field-?"]
  tuhlau-vunai:containment field ["contain-field"]  
    ka-dvunik tuhlau-vunai:isokinetic containment field ["same-moving contain-?"]
vush:jet {n.} {tech., meteo.}
  mu'yor-wak-vush:nocturnal jet {meteo.}
  ku-liyik ruken-vush:valley exit jet {meteo.}
  na-vush|na-salan-pilash:polar jet (stream) {meteo.}
  falu-shal-vush:tropical jet {meteo.}
    nefalu-shal-vush:subtropical jet {meteo.}
  nuk-vok-vush:low level jet {meteo.}
  vi-yumau-vush:inflow jet {meteo.}
  vush-dataya:jet propulsion {tech.}
  vush-mishu:jet engine {tech.}
  vush-sov-hali:jet aircraft {tech.} ["?-air-ship"]
  vush-su-yata:jetliner {tech.}
wa('~):especially|particularly|really|truly  [etc.; used for emphasis]
  ex=Wa'aitlu nash-veh gla-tor per-gluvaya.:I really want to see the play. ["Really-wants this-one to-see play."]
  ex=Wa'bolau nash-veh i'trasha.:I really need to leave now. ["Really-needs this-one now-leave."]
  ex=Wa'tev-tor Kardassu i.:The Cardassian is truly *dying* now. ["Truly-dies Cardassian now."]
  ex=I'tev-tor Kardassu wa.:The Cardassian is truly dying *now*. ["Now-dies Cardassian truly."; different shade of meaning]
wa'hu:wahoo (ngaal, ono, paala, toson) {zool.} [from FSE]
  wak-krus:period ["time-part"]
  wak-vel:clock ["time-thing"]
  lat-wak:local time {aero.} ["?-time"]
wakli:in what way
  ex=>Wakli ak'wikman - ot-lan?<:"What surprises you, lieutenant?" ["In-what-way surprises, lieutenant?"]
wan:cloud {n.} {anc.} [from CLGV /wlan/ and AGV /w'lhán/]
  waneti:/Waneti/ (a type of white?, flowering plant; borr.)
  wan-tukh:alumin(i)um ["cloud-stuff", because the metal is light in color and weight]
  wan-kur:white ["cloud-color", because clouds are one of the few "white" items historically on Vulcan]
    ex=Le-matya wan-kur.:The /le-matya/ is white.
    wan-~:white ~
    kahs-wan:/Kahs-wan/ (maturity test) {anc.} ["flesh-white", see /kahm/?; Vulcan children go/are sent into the deep desert (the Forge) to prove their survival skills, that they are actually Vulcans – only those who survive can take a mate; see /Vuhlkansu/]
watosh(-~):ugly ~
wedzh:intent {n.}
  wedzh-tor:(to) intend
    ex=Wedzh-tor du gla-tor per-gluvaya ha.:Do you intend to see the play? ["Intend you to-see play yes."]
weh-~:~er|more ~ (comparative)
    ex=:[see /ma/ for ex.]
    ex=Isan t'Wehk- heh Gol'nev-Zhitlar svi'Zhit-ballar:Use of Multiple & Helper Verbs in Sentences
weil:whale [borr. from FSE]
  ralek-weil:fin whale [see /ralek/]
wek:phase {n.} {aero.}
  wek-tor:(to) phase {aero.}
ul-wihka:hypothesis {ocean.} ["partial-?"]
  ex=Kluflar t'nash-veh wilat.:Where are my boots? ["Boots of-this-one where."]
  ex=To-pal t'du wilat.:Where is your coat? ["Coat of-you where."]
  ex=Sehlatlar t'nash-veh wilat.:Where are my /sehlats/?
  ex=Shitau T'Luki moneklar wilat.:Where does T'Luki put the cups? ["Put T'Luki cups where."] 
wimish:(to) be called (introduction)
  ex=>Saavik wimish. Kup-stariben?<:"I am Saavik. Can you speak?" ["Saavik to-be-called. Able-to-speak?"]
wis:tense {gr.}
wu(-~):long ~
wugau:(to) confirm
  wugaya:confirmation (discipline)
wuh:one {enum.}
  wuh'rak:first TGV)
    wuhr-~:first ~
  wuh-thurai:the next one ["one-next"]
  wuhik:one {adj.}
  wuhkuh:one {card.}
yahv-tor:(to) borrow
  ex=Yahv-tor T'Luki dunap,:T'Luki borrows a book.
  ex=Yahv-tor Sonok khav-kur kluflar t'T'Luki.:Sonok borrows T'Luki’s brown boots.
  yahvu-~:borrowed ~ {ling.}
  yar-kur:green ["grass-color"]
  yarmok:salad ["grass-ring", see /mokuv/?]
  ne-yartra:meadow ["shallow-grass-there"]
yaretau:(to) visit
  yaretausu:visitor ["visiting-person"; inferred]
    oyaretausu:(honored) guest ["honored-visiting-person"; inferred]
  ex=Yauluhk Pitoh na'Riguv- - Wehk-Guv- heh Ri-Vukhut-Hasular:Important Note about Asexual, Multi-Sexual and Non-Corporeal Beings
yeht(-~):right|correct|true ~
yel:star {n.}
  # yel-hali:[see /hali/]
  yel-halek:galaxy ["star-wheel"]
    Yel-Halek t'Thas-Yut:Milky Way Galaxy ["galaxy of-milk-way"]
      yel-halekik shi-kethel:galactic coordinate ["galactic place-?"]
    yel-halek-pa'ashtra:galactic plane
    yel-halek-dan:galactic rotation
  yel-ulidar:sunspot ["star-scar"]
  yem-tukh:food ["meal-stuff"]
  aru-yem:dinner ["evening-meal"]
  asal-yem:breakfast ["morning-meal"]
  khi-gad-yem:lunch ["mid-day-meal"]
yerak:bowl {n.}
yetur:(to) drive
  yeturek:drive {n.} ["drive-all"; inferred from /mesakh-tchas-yeturek/]
    weh-sahr-ha'gelik yeturek:faster-than-light (FTL) drive ["more-fast-light drive"]
yokul:(to) eat [irr. strong v.]
  ex=Yokul ravot yar.:The insect eats the grass.
  yokul-mev:esophagus {med.}|gullet {biol.} ["eat-pipe"]
    yokul-mev-el'neshek:esophageal scissors {med.} ["eat-pipe-scissors"]
  yokulfa:eater (animal) ["eat-animal"]
  yokulsu:eater (person) ["eat-person"]
    yokulsu t'masutraik numo-ha-vellar:planktivore ["eater of-? microscopic-living-things"] 
    fan-yokulsu:omnivore ["?-eater"]
    ha'gel-yokulsu:phototroph ["light-eater"]
    ha-guhsh-yokulsu:detritivore|detrivore ["life-debris-eater"; see /ha-guhsh/]
    kahm-yokulsu:carnivore ["meat-eater"; see /kahm/]
    kastik-goh-yokulsu:vegetarian ["plant-only-eater"; see /kastik/]   
    kastik-yokulsu:herbovore ["plant-eater"]
    keh-masunol-yokulsu:methanotroph ["?-?-eater"]
    masunol-yokulsu:methylotroph ["?-eater"]
    plei-yokulsu:grazer ["?-eater"]
    tevanu-ha-yokulsu:saprophage ["?-?-eater"]
    tevanu-yokulsu:scavenger ["?-eater"]
yon:fire {n.}
  yon-kur:red ["fire-color"]
za'~:behind ~
za(-)~:posterior|aft(-)~|rear(-)~|stern(-)~ {naut.}
zahvan:taste {n.}
  zahv-tor:(to) taste
zakar:damage {n.}
  zakar-tor:(to) damage
    ex=Zakar-tor sahriv urozh svi'solai t'sa-veh hi ri t'etek.:The storm damaged the crops in his field but not in ours.
zanan:view {n.}
  zan-tor:(to) view
zehl:line {n.}
  ek'zehl:border ["all-line"]
    ek'zehl'es:lineage ["line-noun"; inferred]
      wakrubau-zehl'es:evolutionary lineage ["evolution-lineage"]
    lap-ek'zehl:baumgrenze ["tree-border"]
    yetur-ek'zehl:driveline|drivetrain {tech.}
  ha'zehl:beam (ray) ["fire-line"]
    ha'zehl-tash-feretai:beam control assembly ["?-line-control-?"]
zek:order {n.}
zhai-~:gray ~
  ex=Zhai-sehlatlar fnau hi le-matyalar kresik.:The grey /sehlats/ are tame but the /le-matyas/ are aggressive.
zhar-~:orange-colored ~
  zhar-kur:orange (color)
zhel:band|ribbon|strap {n.}
zherka:emotion {anc.}
  zhit-bal:sentence ["word-?"]
    ex=velik zhit-bal, krus 1:simple sentence, part 1 
  zhit-gir:word root ["word-root"; inferred]
  zhit-isan:grammar ["word-use"]
  zhit-vesht-tal:etymology ["word-past-study"]
    ex=>Zhit-Vesht-Tal Ba- eh Iyi-Gol-Vuhlkansu<:"Traditional and Modern Golic Vulcan Etymology"
  nazhitovau:(to) spell
  dannosh-zhit:superlative {n.}
  deshkaun-zhit:interrogative {n.}
  gol'nev-zhit:helper verb ["help-word"] 
  guhras-zhit:invective {n.} ["gutter/junk-word"; see /guh/]
    redzh-guhras-zhitlar:mild invective
    wahdzh-guhras-Zhitlar:severe invective
  navath-zhit:comparative {n.}
    ex=Navath-Zhitlar heh Dannosh-Zhitlar:Comparatives & Superlatives
zhoh:1000000 (million) {enum.} {card.}
  zhoh'rak:1000000th (millionth; TGV)
    zhohr-~:1000000th (millionth)
  zhohik:1000000 (million) {adj.}
zhu:hearing {n.}
  zhu-fam-~:deaf ~ ["hearing-without"]
  # zhu-thonek:[see /thonek/]
  zhu-tor:(to) hear ["hearing-verb"]
    ex=Zhu-tor T'Luki sehlatlar fna'krani fi'yut na'svep.:T'Luki hears /sehlats/ through the window on the way to the door.
    nazhu-tor:(to) listen
zungri-~:tired ~
    ex=Dular zungor.:You {pl.} are tired.
zup:labor|work {n.}
  zup-tor:(to) labor|work
    ex=>Zup-tor vu akarshif - Spahkh.<:"You have labored long, Spock." ["Labor you-yourself a long time, Spock."]
zul:lava {geol.}
  (suk')zul-kunel:volcano {sci.}